In modern medication of erectile dysfunction, the oral prescription medication of popular Viagra (Sildenafil) is effective, but in some men it is not compatible and Sildenafil works in less than 70% of men with various etiologies and has certain side effects23. The availability of Viagra has brought millions of couples to ED treatment. Oral testosterone can reduce ED in some men with low levels of natural testosterone, but it is often ineffective and may cause liver damage34. Other drugs such as Yohimbine, papaverine hydrochloride [used under careful medical supervision]5, phentolamine, and alprostadil (marketed as Caverject) widen blood vessels. However, this available modern medication for the ED in men is very expensive for most of the rural people in Ugandan and other developing countries. Yet, in traditional medicine, there are several medicinal plants that have been relied on for use in the treatment of ED. This ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge has not been earlier documented and scientifically validated for efficacy and safety, future drug discovery and development.
Erectile dysfunction, sometimes, which also may imply to refer to “impotence,” is the repeated inability to get or keep an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse23,34. The word “impotence” may also be used to describe other problems that interfere with sexual intercourse and reproduction, such as lack of sexual desire and problems with ejaculation or orgasm23. Roper29 defines erectile dysfunction as the total inability to achieve erection, an inconsistent ability to do so, or a tendency to sustain only brief erections (premature ejaculation). Pamplona-Roger27 defines impotence as the inability to finish sexual intercourse due to lack of penile erection. These variations make defining ED and estimating its incidence difficult. For purposes of this publication, since ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge (IK) cannot clearly distinguish between these two terms, then erectile dysfunction and sexual impotence are both used. The local people who are providers of this information are not in position to classify these two conditions.
If you can't take one of these oral medications, your physician may have you try Caverject (alprostadil for injection), a hormone that you inject into your penis using a fine needle, or Muse (alprostadil urogenital), a tiny suppository that you insert into the tip of the penis. Both of these will bring on an erection within five to 15 minutes without sexual stimulation.

"Just because there is evidence doesn't mean it's good evidence," says Andrew McCullough, MD, associate professor of clinical urology at New York University Langone Medical Center in New York City, and one of the original clinical investigators for the ED drug Viagra (sildenafil). "And before men with ED start down the naturopathic route, it's smart to make sure that there isn't some underlying medical condition that needs to be corrected." Moreover, it is estimated that 30 million American men have erectile dysfunction, and 70% of cases are a result of a potentially deadly condition like atherosclerosis, kidney disease, vascular disease, neurological disease, or diabetes. Additionally, ED can also be caused by certain medications, surgical injury, and psychological problems.
The Science: Some studies have implied that feeding maca to domestic cattle increases sperm production, but there is very little data about any sexual effect on humans. One very small randomized double-bind trial of men with erectile dysfunction found that men taking maca extract reported a small increase in their ability to get erections. But so did the control group. As with the fenugreek study, a similar study with a larger group of people is needed to see whether any differences between the controls and the maca-eaters are real.
E longifolia is a medicinal plant (family Simaroubaceae) native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and Laos. The root extract has been found to be the most powerful herbal aphrodisiac [17]. Tongkat ali extracts contain many alkaloids, quassinoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, high-molecular-weight glycoproteins and mucopolysaccharides. The main bioactive compounds are eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone and pasakbumin-B. It is considered to be natural ‘Viagra’. It increases sexual desire, and enhances performance and general well-being [17- 19]. In addition to its aphrodisiac effect, other medicinal effects, such as antimalarial, antibacterial, antipyretic, antiulcer and antitumour effects, have been reported [20,21]. Root decoction has been used as a general tonic (18,22]. Laboratory animal studies show that root extract enhances sexual characteristics and performance in rodents [22-25]. In a study involving a boar model, it was found that E longifolia root extract-treated boars increased sperm counts and semen volume; the effect was attributed to increased level of plasma testosterone [26]. Reports also suggest that E longifolia extract reverses the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and spermatogenesis in rats [27]. Oral administration of E longifolia extract to inexperienced castrated male rats produced dose-dependent increases in sexual performance [28]. Zakaria et al [29] found that eurycomanone, a potential bioactive compound in the root extract of E longifolia, induced apoptosis in hepatocarcinoma (Hep G2) cells. Furthermore, their work suggested that eurycomanone was cytotoxic to Hep G2 cells and less toxic to normal Chang’s liver and WLR-68 cells. Tambi and Imran [19] investigated the effects of water-soluble extract of the root of E longifolia Jack and found that the extract increased semen volume, sperm concentration, percent of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility in male partners of subfertile couples with idiopathic infertility. Supplementation with E longifolia elevated the testosterone levels and upregulated osteoprotegerin gene expression in male Sprague-Dawley rats [30].
A list of 33 medicinal plants both cultivated and wild-harvested generated show that herbal remedies are greatly utilized by men for managing sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction in western Uganda. Erectile dysfunction and sexual impotence are old problem and traditionally the indigenous knowledge had ways of treating or managing these conditions associated with male reproductive system. These plants in the tables we are discussing have been in use for centuries in treating or managing conditions in male reproductive organs.
Many stores sell herbal supplements and health foods that claim to have sexual potency and fewer side effects. They’re also often cheaper than prescribed medications. But these options have little scientific research to back up the claims, and there’s no uniform method on testing their effectiveness. Most results from human trials rely on self-evaluation, which can be subjective and difficult to interpret.
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