Deer antlers (Cervi pantotrichum): the most popular of sexual tonics. In the Chinese medical teaching, kidneys control sexual function; hence foods and herbs such as this can invigorate impotency and infertility increasing semen production as well (5). Best quality are from young bucks with new horn still in velvet with blood visible in the cartilage.
Thirty-three medicinal plants both cultivated (Table 1) and wild harvested (Table 2) were documented and identified in the area of study. In the description below these results of these two table are combined as presented below. All the identified medicinal plants in both tables belong to 25 families and 30 genera. The family Rubiaceae (4) is the most represented followed by Alliaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Papilionaceae and Caesalpinaceae families which have two species each and the rest with one species. The composition is that 42.4% are shrubs, 39.4% herbs and herb climbers and 18.2% trees. Leaves (57.6%) are the commonest plant parts followed by roots (42.1%), barks (27.3%) and the rest of the plant parts harvested have less than 10% of the parts harvested. From Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Rhus vulgaris, Warburgia ugandensis, Cleome gynandra and Tarenna graveolens, three different plant parts, are harvested for use in sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction. In the case of Impetiens species and Urtica massaica, the whole plants are harvested while the rest of the species one or two different plant parts are used. The conservation status of these documented plants is that 27.3% are cultivated while 72.7% are collected from wild places. The common methods of plant medicine preparation included boiling, chewing, pounding, cooking, roasting and smoking. The commonest method of herbal administration was by oral means as food, herbal teas or by mixing in several drinks including locally made beer.
Ginseng. Korean red ginseng has long been used to stimulate male sexual function, but few studies have tried systematically to confirm its benefits. In one 2002 study involving 45 men with significant ED, the herb helped alleviate symptoms of erectile dysfunction and brought "enhanced penile tip rigidity." Experts aren't sure how ginseng might work, though it's thought to promote nitric oxide synthesis. "I would recommend ginseng [for men with ED]," says Espinosa. Discuss with your doctor before taking it since ginseng can interact with drugs you may already be taking and cause allergic reactions.
The medicinal plants used in male-related conditions will be very significant in the present and future generations. From the researchers point of view, the usage of herbal remedies in managing sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction is useful because of long history of utilisation of some herbs that are perceived as effective. Thus, the establishment of rapport between modern health workers through collaborative ventures with traditional healers, relevant NGOs like Rukararwe in Bushenyi by having close supervision and monitoring of herbal treatments in such conditions is noble. Ministry of Health through its research wing in traditional medicine the Natural Chemotherapeutics Research Laboratory in Wandegeya has role to play in advocacy of traditional medicine. In addition, Public-Private Partnership in Health Care Delivery Desk Office in Ministry of Health and distinguished researchers in herbal medicine need to network, collaborate and have policy in place for herbal medicine as an alternative form of health care in Uganda. The traditional herbal medicines, relevant to the needs of ailing Ugandans can be tried out after being licensed by the National Drug Authority. In our view, sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction are real silent conditions affecting Ugandan men. Additionally, further investigations into the safety and efficacy of these traditional herbal remedies used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and other male-related conditions are recommended in Uganda.
A list of 33 medicinal plants both cultivated and wild-harvested generated show that herbal remedies are greatly utilized by men for managing sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction in western Uganda. Erectile dysfunction and sexual impotence are old problem and traditionally the indigenous knowledge had ways of treating or managing these conditions associated with male reproductive system. These plants in the tables we are discussing have been in use for centuries in treating or managing conditions in male reproductive organs.
This study was carried out in areas in and around Queen Elizabeth Biosphere Reserve (QEBR) and some other sub counties such as Katerera, Kichwamba and Kitagata in Bushenyi and Munkunyu, Kayonza and Kitsinga in Kasese districts in Western Uganda. The sampling sites were located in the parishes around the biosphere reserve, and in the selected fishing villages within the biosphere reserve. These included, Katwe, Mweya, Katunguru, Hamukungu, Kahendero and Kayanja Fishing Villages and many other villages.
The Science: Some studies have implied that feeding maca to domestic cattle increases sperm production, but there is very little data about any sexual effect on humans. One very small randomized double-bind trial of men with erectile dysfunction found that men taking maca extract reported a small increase in their ability to get erections. But so did the control group. As with the fenugreek study, a similar study with a larger group of people is needed to see whether any differences between the controls and the maca-eaters are real.
“Obecalp” is “placebo” spelled backwards. It might help – treatment with inactive placebos (inert substances used in evaluation of new drug treatments) works about one-third of the time in scientific studies when patients don’t know they’re getting a fake drug. Placebos are generally safe since they contain no known active agent. (However, I personally never give patients inactive placebos, and many physicians regard them as unethical.)
The basis of ED herbal therapies is that they are anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory, and can stimulate testosterone production. On the other hand, the synthetic drugs act via NO. The principal mediator of the relaxation of corporal smooth muscle of the penis has been shown to be NO, which is released mainly from parasympathetic nerves and endothelium . NO is believed to relax the corporal smooth muscle by activating soluble guanylate cyclase to increase cGMP content [14,15]. Penile rigidity depends on maximizing inflow of blood while minimizing outflow . The increased blood flow in the cavernous sinuses puts pressure on the walls of the surrounding veins, causing the lumen of the veins narrow, temporarily interfering with the flow of blood but causing tumescence. Normally, the parasympathetic nerve produces Ach. Ach acts on muscarinic receptors and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. When the parasympathetic nerve is stimulated, preganglionic neurons release Ach at the ganglion, which acts on nicotinic receptors on postganglionic receptors. Postganglionic neurons then release Ach to stimulate muscarinic receptors of the target organs. The muscarinic receptor M3, present in the endothelial cells and smooth muscle, is activated, and the M2 receptor in the heart may also be activated. This may result in the production of Ach, which can cause endothelial cells to produce NO. Ach released from postganglionic parasympathetic nerves acting through G-protein-mediated muscarinic receptors and nicotinic cholinergic receptors helps to release NO. Normally, M1, M2 and M3 receptors are found in secretory glands, heart, smooth muscle and endothelial cells, respectively. M1, M2 and M3 receptors cause activation of phospholipase C and generate inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, which increase calcium. Activation of M4 may inhibit adenylate cyclase, decreasing the messenger cyclic AMP. This mechanism may be involved in the relaxation and contraction of cavernosal smooth muscle cells.
The causes of ED are varies from one individual to another. For whatever cause, since an erection requires a precise sequence of events, ED can occur when any of the events is disrupted. This sequence includes nerve impulses in the brain, spinal column, and area around the penis, and response in muscles, fibrous tissues, veins, and arteries in and near the corpora cavernosa23. Thus, ED causes reported include, damage to nerves, arteries, smooth muscles, and fibrous tissues. These are often as a result of diseases, such as diabetes, kidney disease, chronic alcoholism, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vascular disease, and neurologic diseases that account for about 70 percent of ED cases23. NIH23 reported that between 35 and 50 percent of men with diabetes experience ED. NIH23 further reported that the usage of many common medicines such as blood pressure drugs, antihistamines, antidepressants, tranquilizers, appetite suppressants, and cimetidine (an ulcer drug) can produce ED as a side effect. Nevertheless, psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, guilt, depression, low self-esteem, and fear of sexual failure cause 10 to 20 percent of ED cases. In addition, men with a physical cause for ED frequently experience the same sort of psychological reactions (stress, anxiety, guilt, depression)23. Other possible causes are smoking, which affects blood flow in veins and arteries, and hormonal abnormalities, such as not enough testosterone23.
Saw palmetto. Saw palmetto comes from the fruit of a small palm tree. It has been used to treat symptoms in men with an enlarged prostate gland, such as difficulty urinating, and it has been recommended to treat ED caused by an enlarged prostate. However, several recent clinical trials did not show that saw palmetto works any better on an enlarged prostate than a placebo does. "There is no evidence that saw palmetto should be used to treat erectile dysfunction," says Dr. Gilbert. Like ginkgo biloba, saw palmetto can interact with some prescription medications.
A number of nonprescription products claim to be herbal forms of Viagra. Some of these products contain unknown amounts of ingredients similar to those in prescription medications, which can cause dangerous side effects. Some actually contain the real drug, which should be given by prescription only. Although the Food and Drug Administration has banned many of these products, some potentially dangerous erectile dysfunction remedies remain on the market.