Yohimbine hydrochloride is the principal alkaloid of the bark of the African yohimbe tree. It is primarily selective for the presynaptic alpha-2 receptor that enhances the central release of norepinephrine1,2 or even epinephrine,3 although the latter is controversial.4 This central action increases sexual arousal2,5 and appears similar to the central alpha-2 adrenergic mechanism that initiates hot flashes.6 Peripherally, yohimbine may partially antagonize norepinephrine-induced contraction of corporeal cavernosal smooth muscle.7,8 The action is that of an antagonist to postjunctional alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, but a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle is also possible.9
Another study discovered that nicotine significantly reduced participants' physical arousal in response to erotic films; the erections achieved by study participants who had ingested nicotine were 23% smaller than those who hadn't. This is in spite of the fact that participants didn't report feeling any less psychologically aroused by the erotic films.
A complete sexual behavioral cycle of males involved pre sexual performances, copulation and ultimate ejaculation. Pre sexual behavior comprises physical contact with the female, sniffing and licking of female genital area, licking of their own penis, and few mounts without intromissions. Although all induced females were screened for receptivity, some females showed a mild rejection in the beginning. However, there were no rejections when they were coupled with very active males. All animals which completed the behavioral cycle showed a normal pattern of behavior (not an aberrant sexual behaviour) during the observation period.

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The principal difference between the Hong Kong study. and others that proceeded it, is that the researchers used niacin alone, rather than in combination with PDE5 inhibitors. The results indicate that niacin can improve erectile function in those with moderate to severe ED but not in those with mild and mild-to-moderate ED. Statins also appear to be effective for improving erectile function in those with more severe ED.

Even at the higher doses of yohimbine, no changes in blood pressure or pulse were noted. This agent would appear to be safe in men with medically controlled hypertension. There was an increase in the morning cortisol levels in all men; the value was higher but not significantly so in responders. Telöken et al18 reported a high percentage (80%) of adverse events, but these authors administered a large dose (100 mg) of yohimbine. A toxic overdose of 200 mg produced only tachycardia, elevated blood pressure and anxiety of brief duration.33 Even direct intravenous dosing of yohimbine raised the mean arterial blood pressure by 12%,34 Goldstein et al35 systematically administered yohimbine and noted large hemodynamic and norepinephrine responses in both normal and hypertensive men; only the men who had a history of anxiety, depression, or other psychopathologic factors had symptoms. Oral administration of yohimbine at standard doses or even four tablets (21.6 mg) at a time has had no effect on blood pressure.4 Elevated blood pressure and heart rate were recorded when eight tablets (43.2 mg) were given at one time.3
Saw palmetto. Saw palmetto comes from the fruit of a small palm tree. It has been used to treat symptoms in men with an enlarged prostate gland, such as difficulty urinating, and it has been recommended to treat ED caused by an enlarged prostate. However, several recent clinical trials did not show that saw palmetto works any better on an enlarged prostate than a placebo does. "There is no evidence that saw palmetto should be used to treat erectile dysfunction," says Dr. Gilbert. Like ginkgo biloba, saw palmetto can interact with some prescription medications.

1. Increased Blood Flow in Men with Lower Niacin Levels.  Of course, there is a lot to an erection, but I think just about everyone would agree that the #1 goal is to increase something called endothelial function.  The endothelium is the delicate lining of the arteries that pumps out nitric oxide and relaxes the arteries.  And, of course, a relaxed, i.e. more open artery is one that allows more blood to flow into your arm, your leg or your brain.  And I'm sure I don't need to explain why increased blood flow into your penile arteries is critical for erectile strength.


This content is strictly the opinion of Dr. Josh Axe and is for informational and educational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical advice or to take the place of medical advice or treatment from a personal physician. All readers/viewers of this content are advised to consult their doctors or qualified health professionals regarding specific health questions. Neither Dr. Axe nor the publisher of this content takes responsibility for possible health consequences of any person or persons reading or following the information in this educational content. All viewers of this content, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should consult their physicians before beginning any nutrition, supplement or lifestyle program.
"The good news is, our study also found that a large proportion of men were naturally overcoming erectile dysfunction issues. The remission rate of those with erectile dysfunction was 29%, which is very high. This shows that many of these factors affecting men are modifiable, offering them an opportunity to do something about their condition," Professor Wittert says.
Yohimbine has had questionable effects in men with organic erectile dysfunction. We conducted this study to better define the population of men responsive to yohimbine, because tobacco was thought to affect a regimen of yohimbine more than other risk factors. We measured nocturnal penile tumescence with the RigiScan™ monitor, hormone profiles, answers to the Florida Sexual Health Questionnaire, and clinical responses at baseline and after two different doses of yohimbine in 18 nonsmoking men with erectile dysfunction. Of the 18 men, nine (50%) were successful in completing intercourse in more than 75% of attempts. The yohimbine responders were men with less severe erectile dysfunction as manifested by improved increased rigidity on RigiScan™ testing, higher Florida Sexual Health Questionnaire scores, and slightly higher levels of serum testosterone. Yohimbine is an effective therapy to treat organic erectile dysfunction in some men with erectile dysfunction.
But, first for those of you who do not know anything on this topic, let’s define erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is a condition which characterizes itself with the inability to maintain an erection during sexual intercourse. Luckily, although erectile dysfunction is a common condition, this condition seems to be easily treated. You can choose from the variety of natural remedies, including supplements, which claim to increase your stamina, sexual ability, and muscle mass. This article is dedicated to the importance of exercise as a way to treat erectile dysfunction and highlight the best exercises you could use as a part of the treatment. 
As an alpha-2 antagonist, yohimbine promotes sympathetic activity. According to a number of studies, yohimbe can increase blood pressure. This is why it’s useful for things like erectile dysfunction or diabetic nerve problems. Yohimbine is sometimes used to treat low blood pressure and symptoms like dizziness when standing up. It works by dilating blood vessels and acting on the sympathetic nervous system. However, it’s important to point out that increased blood pressure can also be a problem for some people, especially those with existing cardiovascular problems, people taking blood pressure medications, or those who already have high blood pressure.
Prostate problems are most common in older men, but it’s never too early to start looking after your prostate! Problems such as BPH (enlarged prostate) and prostatitis can cause unpleasant symptoms such as frequent urination, weak urine stream, difficulty urinating and sudden urges to urinate, which can really get in the way of daily life and interrupt sleep.

Researchers in London set out to find out if the claims about Yohimbe were true. Could the bark of a tree actually increase libido and improve impotence? They performed a double-blind trial using yohimbine for the treatment of erection inadequacy. Men, aged 18-70 years, seeking help for the secondary erection inadequacy for 6 months or longer, took part in the trial. None of the participants had any serious psychiatric disease, hypertension or liver insufficiency. Half of the men were given 5.4mg of yohimbine, the other half a placebo, for 8 weeks. Patients were assessed in 4-week intervals. After 8 weeks of treatment, 37 percent said they had good erections, as compared to only 13% in the placebo group. After the 8-week treatment, the placebo group was given the yohimbine as well, results for improved stimulated erection after the second 8-week trial increased to a total of 42 percent overall.
In addition to getting helpful nutrients from your diet, you can also consider supplementing. Many of these are also on my list of top five supplements to increase sex drive, so they’re helpful for overall sexual health. It’s a good idea to check in with a practitioner, particularly one with knowledge of your individual health issues and medications, before taking anything. Here are some I recommend:

Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47) vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66), P < 0.05 and an increase in number of penile thrusting; 52.80 (SEM 11.28) vs. 26.50 (SEM 6.17), P < 0.05, compared to controls. The same group had elevated prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) levels compared to controls at the end of treatment period; PRL- 7.22 ng/dl (SEM 3.68) vs. 2.90 ng/dl (SEM 0.34) and T- 8.21 ng/ml (SEM 6.09) vs. 2.39 ng/ml (SEM 1.79), P < 0.05. In contrast, reduction of libido was evident in the same group, but this effect was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions.


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Testosterone levels generally decrease as an individual ages. This is normal and natural, but it can lead to erectile problems for some people because androgenic hormones such as testosterone play an important part in regulating the function of tissues in the penis and testicles. One study found that supplementing with testosterone gel improved both the libido and erectile function of participants with low testosterone between the ages of 32 and 84.

The prolongation of ejaculatory latency may be beneficial when present with unimpaired arousability, penile erection and sex vigor. The ejaculatory latency can also be prolonged due to some disorders in the neuroendocrine or reproductive system.[24] But the duration of zinc supplementation in our study was only two weeks which is not long enough to have an impact on the neuroendocrine or reproductive system.
When it comes to maintaining your libido, the B vitamins, found in beef, liver, and fish, are all your wingmen, but niacin (a.k.a. Vitamin B3) is especially helpful. In a study published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine, men suffering from impotence who took a niacin supplement reported a significant improvement in their bedroom performance than men who took a placebo. Stock up on these best foods to eat for niacin!
A double-blind, partial crossover study on the therapeutic effect of yohimbine hydrochloride on erectile dysfunction was done in 82 sexually impotent patients. All patients underwent a multifactorial evaluation, including determination of penile brachial blood pressure index, cavernosography, sacral evoked response, testosterone and prolactin determination, Derogatis sexual dysfunction inventory and daytime arousal test. After 1 month of treatment with a maximum of 42.0 mg. oral yohimbine hydrochloride daily 14 per cent of the patients experienced restoration of full and sustained erections, 20 per cent reported a partial response to the therapy and 65 per cent reported no improvement. Three patients reported a positive placebo effect. Maximum effect takes 2 to 3 weeks to manifest itself. Yohimbine was active in some patients with arterial insufficiency and a unilateral sacral reflex arc lesion, and in 1 with low serum testosterone levels. The 34 per cent response is encouraging, particularly in a Veterans Administration population presenting with a high incidence of diabetes and vascular pathological conditions not found in regular office patients. Only few and benign side effects were recorded, which makes this medication worth an attempt, often as a first line of treatment even at a dose of 8 tablets.

DHEA. DHEA, or dehydroepiandrosterone, is a natural hormone that the body uses to make the male hormone testosterone. DHEA and testosterone decrease with age, just as ED increases with age, so it seems that taking DHEA might protect against ED. But Harris says that "it is unlikely that taking DHEA would raise your testosterone enough to make much difference." DHEA should not be used by people with liver problems; it also has many side effects.
You can find this compound as a standalone ingredient in capsule, tablet, or tea form as well as a component of popular pre-workouts and fat burners. Yohimbine is not for everyone - even with moderate dosages it can increase the frequency and severity of panic attacks in high-anxiety individuals, interfere with medications, as well as cause headaches, dizziness, and nausea.
When stimulated by the nerves, the spongy tissue arranges itself in such a way that more blood can be stored in the penis. The veins running through the outer sheath of the penis then compress which stops the blood from leaving the penis. As the blood is stopped from flowing out, the penis fills with blood and stretches within the outer casing, giving an erection.
With the erectile dysfunction (ED) market expected to reach 3.4 billion dollars (USD) by 2019, this is a lucrative area to invest in, and not much grabs the attention of a guy watching a commercial during a Monday night football game than the promise to easily cure this problem with one pill as needed.  But is this the answer for everyone?  What causes ED?  For the guy with no apparent risk factors like depression or diabetes, hypothyroidism, injury or stress issues, erectile dysfunction or loss of libido (which don’t necessarily go hand in hand) can be confusing and frustrating for a guy as well as his partner.

Much higher doses have been used in certain studies, sometimes up to 100 milligrams daily. However, this is considered a very high dose that is potentially dangerous and likely to cause some side effects. Overall, it’s best to start with small doses while monitoring your reaction. Speak to a doctor or herbal practitioner before increasing your dosage to high levels.
Psychosexual Relationship Specialist at End the Problem, Jacqui Olliver is a published author who renews relationships by solving people's emotional and sexual issues. In the past 7 years, she has helped over 1,000 men, women, and couples restore a relaxed, happy, and fulfilling sex life and enhance their overall connection. Click here to check out her programs or to book a complimentary strategy session and start getting real answers to solve the real problems.

It’s traditionally used by Pygmies and Bushmen as an aphrodisiac and stimulant. In the 19th century, German missionaries brought this herbal plant to Europe, where it became known as the “love tree.” The extract of this herb is clear and odorless with a bitter taste, and is traditionally prepared and consumed as a tea. Nowadays, medicines and supplements that contain yohimbe bark are available in capsule and tablet form.
Research suggests that drinking alcohol may play a part in erectile problems. One study that considered the prevalence of ED among people diagnosed with alcohol dependence syndrome found that heavy drinkers were more likely to experience sexual dysfunction. Experts also believe that the depressant effect of alcohol can inhibit sexual response and even suppress libido in some people.

After two hours of zinc treatment, male rats were individually caged and kept for 15 minutes for adaptation. One estrous (receptive) and one diestrous (nonreceptive) female were introduced to each cage and the duration of physical contact with each female was recorded for 15 minutes. Partner preference index (PPI) was calculated as the difference between the time spent with estrous female and diestrous female. Positive indices indicate their positive sexual interest.[12]


The prolongation of ejaculatory latency may be beneficial when present with unimpaired arousability, penile erection and sex vigor. The ejaculatory latency can also be prolonged due to some disorders in the neuroendocrine or reproductive system.[24] But the duration of zinc supplementation in our study was only two weeks which is not long enough to have an impact on the neuroendocrine or reproductive system.
DHEA. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a hormone produced in your body’s adrenal gland that aids in the production of testosterone and other hormones. Since testosterone is critical for healthy male sexuality, supplementing with DHEA may help with issues like sluggish libido and impotence. One double-blind, placebo-controlled study found subjects given 50 milligrams of DHEA every day for six months experienced improvement in symptoms of E.D.
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