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Nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity monitoring using tumescence and rigidity activity units measure the area under the curve of activity divided by the time slept so that varying sleep times may be compared. All four parameters of base and tip tumescence and rigidity rose more in responders than in nonresponders (Table 5). Most changes showed either a trend toward significance or achieved statistical significance. Baseline tip rigidity activity units and tip tumescence activity unit scores differed significantly between groups (P=0.038 and P=0.026, respectively). In fact, nearly all of the baseline values were higher in the responders compared with the nonresponders. Responder tip tumescence activity unit scores increased steadily, whereas nonresponder scores dropped negligibly with the 10.8 mg tid dose. Responders had a significantly higher final score while taking the 10.8-mg dose (P=0.010). Responder tip rigidity activity unit scores also increased steadily, whereas nonresponder scores increased at the second dose, then fell again at the final dose. The mean tip rigidity activity unit score of the responders was significantly higher than that of the nonresponders with the 5.4-mg tid dose (P=0.011). The final scores of the responders were almost twice those of the nonresponders as well (significant where P=0.041). Base rigidity activity unit scores did not differ significantly between the two groups, although the increased responder scores with the initial dose of yohimbine was greater than that of the nonresponders (trend where P=0.065). Finally, base tumescence activity unit scores of the responders who were taking high doses of yohimbine were significantly higher (P=0.009).

Allow me to explain. We know that cardiovascular disease is the number-one killer of men in the United States. Well, the “vascular” part of cardiovascular disease means that the cause is really blockage of the arteries around the heart, a process called atherosclerosis. It’s proven that over half of heart attacks occur in men with normal cholesterol. And many times, heart disease develops without warnings, causing sudden cardiac arrest.  So any early warning sign can be a life saver — and might compel you to get checked out before the big one hits.
Yohimbe is usually taken orally, but it may also be administered intravenously for certain cases. Weight is also sometimes used as a guide to determine the dosage of this supplement. A 150-pound (lb.) person should take roughly 14 mg of yohimbe per day, while those who weigh 200 lbs. and 250 lbs. should take around 18 mg and 22 mg yohimbe, respectively.
When men are given supplemental testosterone it can have positive effects on erectile dysfunction as well as the “grumpy old men” syndrome of low energy, loss of drive, low libido, and loss of endurance as well as “man boobs”.  Zinc has a direct effect on the two main enzyme systems that act on testosterone: conversion of testosterone to estrogen via aromatase and the conversion of testosterone to DHT by 5 alpha reductase.   Zinc blocks the testosterone to estrogen pathway leading to more testosterone.  It turns out that only at really high zinc levels does zinc inhibit the 5 alpha reductase enzyme so when we give mild to moderate zinc supplements, DHT actually increases because there is more testosterone to feed into this pathway.   This actually benefits things because DHT has 2-3 times the times the androgen receptor affinity than testosterone.  In any case, we see an increase of testosterone and androgenic activity from DHT with zinc supplements and whether a guy has low or normal T to begin with, there is a positive change in erectile dysfunction and libido in some men due to the increased androgenic activity and less estrogen pulling in the opposite direction.  Conversely we see testosterone levels drop when a diet is low in Zinc as well as a drop in DHT.  It is important to note that this effect of increased testosterone with zinc supplementation, while well established, does not always lead to an improvement of ED and increased Libido.
Most studies related to male infertility show a clear concise relationship between zinc and ed. During a study some young men were given a diet which included very little amounts of zinc and thus they developed a zinc deficiency. When testosterone levels were measured after 20 weeks of low-zinc diet it was found that the level of the hormone had drastically reduced. The study also found that in elderly men, with an increase in the uptake of zinc, testosterone levels nearly doubled.
Yohimbine also helps to increase levels of the coenzyme NAD (or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). This affects metabolism, cognitive processes, and detoxification of drugs in the body. NAD is not currently used to treat cognitive or mood-related disorders on its own, but has been shown in some studies to potentially have uses for preventing neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s. However on the other hand, studies have found that because it can increase anxiety in some patients, yohimbine may actually worsen mental illness in some patients, including those with Parkinson’s. (15) For this reason, it’s important for anyone taking mood-altering medications, or who has a history of any cognitive or mood disorder, to work with a professional while taking or starting any new herbal treatments.

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It’s easy to see how erectile dysfunction subsides with exercise. Not only does it help reduce cardiovascular risk factors, but it’s also been shown to reduce stress, another cause of the condition. The best part is that it doesn’t take much effort to get started on an exercise routine. “When it comes to exercise, there is no one-size-fits-all approach,” co-author Dr. Stephen Freedland said in the release. “However, we are confident that even some degree of exercise, even if it’s less intense, is better than no exercise at all.”


A study from 1990 (eight years before Viagra was introduced) found that sedentary but otherwise healthy middle-aged men who started an intense aerobic exercise program reported higher levels of sexual intimacy, and more reliable sexual function. Men in the study who started a walking program also experienced improvements, though not as dramatic. But the bottom line is, improved physical fitness often improves sexual functioning and satisfaction. Here are 5 exercises that can help with erectile dysfunction.
Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47) vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66), P < 0.05 and an increase in number of penile thrusting; 52.80 (SEM 11.28) vs. 26.50 (SEM 6.17), P < 0.05, compared to controls. The same group had elevated prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) levels compared to controls at the end of treatment period; PRL- 7.22 ng/dl (SEM 3.68) vs. 2.90 ng/dl (SEM 0.34) and T- 8.21 ng/ml (SEM 6.09) vs. 2.39 ng/ml (SEM 1.79), P < 0.05. In contrast, reduction of libido was evident in the same group, but this effect was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions.
Despite the name, horny goat weed actually helps improve your erection, not libido.  Botanically known as epimedium, this herb has been used by the Chinese for centuries to treat, among other things, low libido and erectile dysfunction. “A growing body of research shows that isolated icariin—the extract of epimedium—inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) and significantly increases nitric oxide synthase, helping to improve erectile function,” says Fisch. In fact, this is the same mechanism that Viagra works through (but the herb comes with a way better name).

Men typically have higher zinc needs than women, which can make them more vulnerable to zinc deficiencies. In men, zinc is also needed to support healthy prostate and penile function. Keep in mind that excessive amounts of zinc can be harmful so it is best to follow package directions on the supplement you choose, should you decide to supplement with the mineral.


The endothelium is vital to the maintenance of vascular health. It is a critical determinant of vascular tone and patency, reactivity, inflammation, vascular remodeling, and blood fluidity. (9, 10). Nitric oxide (NO) is the most potent vasodilator and is secreted by the endothelium. It is synthesized from Larginine by the endothelial enzyme NO synthase (eNOS). NO released in response to sexual stimulation relaxes penile vascular smooth muscle by increasing intracellular cyclic 3′, 5′-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentration. Vasodilatation of erectile tissues allows the sinusoidal spaces to fill with blood resulting in the attainment and maintenance of an erection (5).
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ED can also occur among younger men. A 2013 study found that one in four men seeking their first treatment for ED were under the age of 40. The researchers found a stronger correlation between smoking and illicit drug use and ED in men under 40 than among older men. That suggests that lifestyle choices may be a main contributing factor for ED in younger men.
Nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity monitoring using tumescence and rigidity activity units measure the area under the curve of activity divided by the time slept so that varying sleep times may be compared. All four parameters of base and tip tumescence and rigidity rose more in responders than in nonresponders (Table 5). Most changes showed either a trend toward significance or achieved statistical significance. Baseline tip rigidity activity units and tip tumescence activity unit scores differed significantly between groups (P=0.038 and P=0.026, respectively). In fact, nearly all of the baseline values were higher in the responders compared with the nonresponders. Responder tip tumescence activity unit scores increased steadily, whereas nonresponder scores dropped negligibly with the 10.8 mg tid dose. Responders had a significantly higher final score while taking the 10.8-mg dose (P=0.010). Responder tip rigidity activity unit scores also increased steadily, whereas nonresponder scores increased at the second dose, then fell again at the final dose. The mean tip rigidity activity unit score of the responders was significantly higher than that of the nonresponders with the 5.4-mg tid dose (P=0.011). The final scores of the responders were almost twice those of the nonresponders as well (significant where P=0.041). Base rigidity activity unit scores did not differ significantly between the two groups, although the increased responder scores with the initial dose of yohimbine was greater than that of the nonresponders (trend where P=0.065). Finally, base tumescence activity unit scores of the responders who were taking high doses of yohimbine were significantly higher (P=0.009).
In the Hong Kong study, the researchers postulated that niacin might be as beneficial as statins on erectile function, and have other related benefits too. Niacin is known to produce a flushing effect (see “Toleration Despite Adversity,” above), which is related to prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) release in the skin. This can lead to vasodilation and concomitant flushing. The production of PGD2 can also occur in macrophages, a type of protective white blood cell. Consequently, when PGD2 production is induced by niacin, it may affect all body tissue, including the cavernosal tissue in the penis. Indeed, PGD2 is one of the potential agents causing the vasodilation and engorgement of cavernosal tissue, thereby leading to erection. Thus, niacin improves erectile function by stimulating the production of PGD2.
You've probably heard of the old saying "use it or lose it". Your sex muscles are just like any other muscles. If you're not using them regularly (masturbation doesn't count) they will lose size and strength. This commonly happens as you age. Considering most people judge a healthy sex life to be 3-5 times per week, that's not a lot of use for these important muscle groups. Therefore, it's best to exercise the muscles which support a healthy sex life so you can enjoy sex well into your 80's.
Some men say certain alternative medicines taken by mouth can help them get and maintain an erection. However, not all “natural” medicines or supplements are safe. Combinations of certain prescribed and alternative medicines could cause major health problems. To help ensure coordinated and safe care, discuss your use of alternative medicines, including use of vitamin and mineral supplements, with a health care professional. Also, never order a medicine online without talking with your doctor.

Often when we start to look outside of mainstream medicine for alternative protocols to heal our health issues we replace one pill-taking protocol with another. The prescription drugs are replaced with a long list of supplements. Supplements alone, without any other lifestyle changes, will have some impact, but it will be nowhere near what they can achieve when working in a body supported with a healthy way of life.


A conflicting study of 22 subjects found that a 100mg daily dose of yohimbine for 30 days did not significantly improve penile rigidity. Three subjects experienced a notable increase in penile rigidity and twelve subject experience a partial increase in rigidity. [13] These findings do not completely discount the use of yohimbine to treat erectile dysfunction, but do suggest the compound's effects, even at very high dosages, will cause varying responses across a similar population.
There’s a reason why Casanova developed his reputation: He was alleged to scarf two dozen oysters a day, which is the food highest in zinc. In the modern era, people with higher levels of zinc in their system have been shown to have a higher sex drive than those with lower levels. That’s because the mineral is essential for testosterone production. In one Nutrition study, zinc-deficient men who supplemented with zinc for six months doubled their T levels. And another eight-week trial published results in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition found that college football players who took a nightly zinc supplement showed increased testosterone levels as well.
In the end, open and honest communication with your therapist will yield the best course of action. If you do decide to try pelvic floor PT, a comprehensive evaluation will determine what exactly is going on with your muscles. They may be tight and weak or they could have poor coordination. So my advice for those suffering from erectile dysfunction is this: before you try kegels, make an appointment with your pelvic floor therapist.
Several studies (15–17) have shown an inverse relationship between physical activity levels and biomarkers of inflammation in both the healthy individuals and subjects with cardiovascular condition. Studies (18–21) have also reported the role of exercise in the management of erectile dysfunction. The majority of these studies are subjective, retrospective case series and non randomized non controlled studies. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are generally accepted as the most valid method for determining the efficacy of a therapeutic intervention, because the biases associated with other experimental designs can be avoided (22). Therefore, the purpose of the present Meta analysis study was to determine the role and effect of aerobic exercise in the management of erectile dysfunction in randomized controlled trials.
Not only will regular exercise burn calories and lower stress, it may lower your risk of ED. Before you start working out, check with your doctor about the best program for you. Think of exercises you're likely to enjoy and will want to continue on a daily basis, whether it's 30 minutes in the morning on a stationary bike while watching the news, a kick-boxing class, or a brisk after-dinner walk around the neighborhood with a friend.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ingesting levels of zinc in excess of the recommended dietary amount will result in diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps. The maximum amount of daily zinc consumption recommended is 40 milligrams per day. Symptoms of too much zinc intake include nausea and headaches. If you have reason to suspect you have ingested too much zinc, contact a medical professional. 
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