Evidence from 5 randomized studies published in the years between 2004 and 2010, has demonstrated strong evidence that aerobic exercise can benefit people with arterogenic ED. These review results of this study build on and update the evidence from studies that concluded that concluded that exercise was beneficial for people with ED and cardiovascular disorders (25–27); on ED and obesity (18) and on normal subjects with ED (24). However, studies have shown common pathway for ED, cardiovascular (28 –30) and metabolic disorders (19, 31).
There are many different reasons a man’s ability to sustain or maintain an erection may be impaired. Impotence is the most common sexual disorder among men. It is thought that most men should be able to achieve and maintain an erection well into their 80s, but about 25 percent of all men over the age of 50 are thought to experience some form of impotence. By the age of 75, half of all men will be impotent. Impotence may come and go, depending on the state of their physical health as well as their stress levels. One of the number one causes of impotence is cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease may restrict blood flow to the penile tissues, which greatly affects a man’s ability to achieve and maintain an erection during sexual arousal.

However, for most men who experience erectile dysfunction, their overall experience can be improved even further through regular exercise. There are many reasons why exercise improves sexual satisfaction. For one thing, regular, sustained exercise can lead to the release of chemicals called endorphins that are responsible for the so-called runner’s high, and which stimulate the release of sex hormones. Exercise also generally improves mood and imparts a sense of calm afterward, with lower heart rate, lower blood pressure, better digestion, and lower levels of stress hormones.

The researchers reasoned from other studies that when the degree of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis are more severe, the effects of niacin and statins as lipid-lowering agents are also more apparent. Their current study seemed to bear this out. Also, in another study assessing the effect of a PDE5 inhibitor in patients using a statin, patients with higher baseline serum LDL-C had better improvement in erectile function after the use of a PDE5 inhibitor. This supports the researchers’ hypothesis that patients with potentially more serious endothelial dysfunction, such as those with higher LDL-C levels, may have better response to the combination usage of a PDE5 inhibitor and niacin.
To evaluate the patients' response clinically in the office, a simple grading system was used.27 The patients were asked about the quality of their erections, which were graded as follows: grade 1, tumescence but no rigidity; grade 2, tumescence with minimal rigidity; grade 3, rigidity sufficient for sexual intercourse; and grade 4, fully rigid erection. At the end of the study, patients were graded as to whether they thought they had improved enough to have satisfactory regular intercourse, which is defined as success in 75% of attempts. The degree of subjective improvement in intercourse was used to classify patients as ‘responders’ vs ‘nonresponders’ in subsequent analyses. A log was kept by the couple of their sexual activity, and it was taken to the clinic for review by the clinical investigator.
The paired t-test was used to assess differences in responses using various doses of yohimbine in responders and nonresponders. Responder and nonresponder changes in tumescence, rigidity, and other physiologic responses over the entire study period were compared using independent t-tests (assuming equal variances). Independent t-tests were repeated to determine whether significant differences existed in the mean numbers of risk factors, age, or side effects among groups. Matched pairs t-tests were used to compare Florida Sexual History Questionnaire responses at each dose. Finally, χ2 analysis (or Fisher's exact test when appropriate) was used to compare the two groups on dichotomous sexual satisfaction ratings at the end of the trial; 95% confidence intervals were consistently examined to determine the magnitudes of differences detected. Two-tailed P-levels were used in reporting all results. SPSS 9.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for analysis.
In the United States, certain prescription drugs containing yohimbine have been approved since the 1980s. They are labeled Yohimbine hydrochloride (which go by the brand names Aphrodyne or Yocon). Yohimbine medications are prescribed most commonly to treat sexual dysfunction in both men and women caused by a number of factors like aging, hormonal imbalances or side effects of medications.
One study that evaluated the effects of yohimbine supplementation on body composition (muscle mass, body mass, etc.) and exercise performance in professional soccer players found that body fat percentage/fat mass significantly decreased in the yohimbine group compared to the placebo group. However, supplementation with yohimbine did not significantly alter overall body mass, muscle mass, or performance indicators. (10) Other studies, however, have found that people do tend to experience increases in energy and alertness when taking yohimbe, sometimes even so much that it causes symptoms of anxiety or restlessness (much like caffeine does).
Penile erection is a hemodynamic process involving increased arterial inflow and restricted venous outflow, coordinated with corpus cavernosum and penile arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Any problem in this mechanism results in Erectile Dysfunction and its etiology is generally multifactorial. This study is aimed at determining the objective outcome of aerobic training in the management of Erectile Dysfunction of arterogenic origin using Meta analysis.
E.D. may just be that early warning sign. Erections depend on blood flow, and blood flow depends on nice, wide-open arteries. Atherosclerosis doesn’t just affect the arteries around your heart; if you have plaque build-up, you are likely to have it all around the arterial system — and the penile artery is one of the smallest arteries you have (no matter what you claim about your size). So if you have atherosclerosis, then the plaque there will be one of the first places where you would notice a decline in blood flow.
In the New World, maize was traditionally treated with lime, an alkali now shown to make niacin nutritionally available and thereby reducing the chance of developing pellagra.1 However, when in the 18th century corn cultivation was adopted worldwide, treatment with lime was not accepted because the benefit was not understood. Thus in the New World, often heavily dependent on corn, cultivators rarely suffered from pellagra, which became common only when corn became a staple that was eaten without the traditional treatment. Of interest, if maize is not so processed, it is a poor source of tryptophan as well as niacin.
Penile implants - are generally used if physical damage (like an accident) makes the anatomical parts needed for an erection not work. These are inserted by surgery and can provide a permanent treatment choice if others fail to work. The implants can be semi-rigid or inflatable. They can be pretty expensive and are not usually available on the NHS.

ED can also occur among younger men. A 2013 study found that one in four men seeking their first treatment for ED were under the age of 40. The researchers found a stronger correlation between smoking and illicit drug use and ED in men under 40 than among older men. That suggests that lifestyle choices may be a main contributing factor for ED in younger men.
Poor sleep patterns can be a contributing factor for erectile dysfunction, Mucher says. One review published in the journal Brain Research emphasized the intricate relationship between the level of sex hormones like testosterone, sexual function, and sleep, noting that testosterone levels increase with improved sleep, and lower levels are associated with sexual dysfunction. Hormone secretion is controlled by the body’s internal clock, and sleep patterns likely help the body determine when to release certain hormones. 
Men, aged 40–80 y, were recruited from new consultations seen for erectile dysfunction at the Lahey Clinic Center for Sexual Function. Patients were screened by history and physical examination and by evaluation of nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity with the RigiScan™ (Timm Medical Technologies, Inc., Minneapolis, USA). Candidates completed a sexual questionnaire and had morning blood tests for luteinizing hormone (LH), free testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and androstenedione. Inclusion criteria included normal initial serum testosterone and prolactin levels and the presence of an organic cause of erectile dysfunction manifested by abnormal nocturnal tumescence and rigidity testing with the RigiScan™ monitor. Active smokers and men with concurrent major psychiatric problems were excluded. No other treatment for erectile dysfunction was permitted during the study. Yohimbine hydrochloride (supplied by Palisades Pharmaceuticals, Palisades, NJ, USA) was started at a dose of 5.4 mg three times a day (tid) for 4 weeks, after which the sex questionnaire was administered again and blood tests, nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity testing were repeated. The dose of yohimbine then was increased to 10.8 mg tid for 4 additional weeks followed by a third administration of the sex questionnaire and final measurements of hormone levels and nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity monitoring.

Partner preference index in both 5 mg zinc treated group and controls was positive. In the control group, time spent by males, with estrous and diestrous females, was 21.75 sec. (SEM 2.26) and 13.62 sec. (SEM 1.05) respectively. In the zinc treated group they spent 20.87 sec. (2.09 SEM) with estrous and 14.37 sec. (SEM 0.70) with diestrous females. The PPI of controls and zinc treated group was 8.12 Sec. (SEM 2.32) and 6.50 Sec. (SEM 1.76) respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups, P > 0.05.

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In rare cases, the drug Viagra ® can cause blue-green shading to vision that lasts for a short time. In rare cases, the drug Cialis® can cause or increase back pain or aching muscles in the back. In most cases, the side effects are linked to PDE5 inhibitor effects on other tissues in the body, meaning they are working to increase blood flow to your penis and at the same time impacting other vascular tissues in your body. These are not ‘allergic reactions'.
On the other hand, high zinc levels have negative effects on sperm quality. Excessive zinc intake in mice have indicated a negative effect of increasing doses of zinc on sperm count and motility.[5] Although there have been studies focusing on various aspects of zinc related reproductive functions, studies on zinc related sexual behavioral aspects have received scant attention. In one study, intranasal irrigation with zinc sulphate has been reported to completely abolish the sexual behavior of male rats.[6]
Testosterone levels generally decrease as an individual ages. This is normal and natural, but it can lead to erectile problems for some people because androgenic hormones such as testosterone play an important part in regulating the function of tissues in the penis and testicles. One study found that supplementing with testosterone gel improved both the libido and erectile function of participants with low testosterone between the ages of 32 and 84.
You may also perform these exercises anywhere and anytime. Just take note in your calendar if you sometimes have problems remembering. On the other hand, aerobic exercises may also improve your cardiovascular health, aside from just your male sexual health. By doing so, you can also experience an improved capability of achieving and maintaining erection.
Depending on dosage, yohimbine can either increase or decrease blood pressure Small doses can increase blood pressure. Higher doses can lead to a potentially dangerous drop in blood pressure. Higher doses of oral yohimbine may have numerous side effects, such as rapid heart rate, overstimulation, unusual blood pressure, cold sweating, and insomnia.
Talk with your doctor about going to a counselor if psychological or emotional issues are affecting your ED. A counselor can teach you how to lower your anxiety or stress related to sex. Your counselor may suggest that you bring your partner to counseling sessions to learn how to support you. As you work on relieving your anxiety or stress, a doctor can focus on treating the physical causes of ED.
A study published in May 2014 in The Journal of Sexual Medicine found that some men can reverse erectile dysfunction with healthy lifestyle changes, such as exercise, weight loss, a varied diet, and good sleep. The Australian researchers also showed that even if erectile dysfunction medication is required, it's likely to be more effective if you implement these healthy lifestyle changes.
Latest research studies highlighted that a daily dose of Vitamin B3 or Niacin brings a drastic improvement in the erectile function of men dealing with the problem of high cholesterol. This result reveals that about 80 men, who consumed Niacin and started the study with either moderate or severe level of erectile dysfunction highlighted a significant improvement in the ability of maintaining an erection.

A conflicting study of 22 subjects found that a 100mg daily dose of yohimbine for 30 days did not significantly improve penile rigidity. Three subjects experienced a notable increase in penile rigidity and twelve subject experience a partial increase in rigidity. [13] These findings do not completely discount the use of yohimbine to treat erectile dysfunction, but do suggest the compound's effects, even at very high dosages, will cause varying responses across a similar population.


Yohimbine may be stacked with other supplements to improve erection quality and/or expedite fat loss. If you're consuming yohimbine to improve your erection quality, then stack it with horny goat weed. [3] Animal models support a yohimbine dose of 0.2mg/kg of bodyweight stacked with a 55 to 110mg dose of horny goat weed to significantly increases erection strength. [16]
There’s much evidence to suggest that Yohimbine does have a positive effect in men who have erectile dysfunction. Initially, it was considered a failure as a treatment because it doesn’t increase levels of testosterone in the body, the hormone needed for erections. However, recent trials have shown that it works well to increase arousal, help blood flow to the penis, and as a general stimulant.
Many studies have been conducted on this topic; their results have been challenged by lack of controlled groups and non-randomization. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are generally accepted as the most valid method for determining the efficacy of a therapeutic intervention, because the biases associated with other experimental designs can be avoided.Non-randomized controlled trials, can detect associations between an intervention and an outcome. But they cannot rule out the possibility that the association was caused by a third factor linked to both intervention and outcome. Random allocation ensures no systematic differences between intervention groups in factors, known and unknown, that may affect outcome. Randomized controlled trials are the most rigorous way of determining whether a cause-effect relation exists between treatment and outcome and for assessing the cost effectiveness of a treatment (45, 22).

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that hydrochlorothiazide a diuretic used to treat hypertension depletes body zinc and thereby cause sexual dysfunction. Serum zinc and sexual dysfunction were measured in 39 middle aged hypertensive men who had been taking hydrochlorothiazide in average daily doses of between 25 and 50 mg daily for at least six months, and a control group of 27 unmedicated middle aged normotensive men. The medicated group had a higher incidence of sexual dysfunction (56 pc) as compared to 11 pc in the control group. The use of hydrochlorothiazide did affect serum zinc levels significantly in 20 patients. Sexual dysfunction occurred more often in older and overweight patients (p < 0.004). Three of the normotensive men experienced sexual dysfunction probably related to old age. Twenty two of the 39 on hydrochlorothiazide and experiencing sexual dysfunction were divided into two groups of 11 patients. Bloods were taken from the 27 normotensive and 22 hypertensive men receiving hydrochlorothiazide for the analyses of zinc. Subsequently one group of the patients were supplemented with zinc 500 mg daily for 30 days while the other group was supplemented with magnesium chloride 1 g daily for 30 days. The normotensive men were not treated. After 30 days, bloods were again taken from the three groups of analyses for zinc and magnesium. Serum zinc was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) by hydrochlorothiazide and a non significant decrease in serum magnesium (p = ns) was observed. After supplementation with zinc, the serum zinc levels returned to normal only in eight patients. There was improvement in the symptoms of sexual dysfunction in five patients. Two patients gained weight. Hydrochlorothiazide decreased serum zinc levels (p < 0.05) and was unchanged with magnesium supplementation but the serum magnesium returned to normal values. Improvement of symptoms of sexual dysfunction was positive in one patient. This study shows that low serum zinc levels may be associated with sexual dysfunction but the definitive role of zinc in the pathogenesis of sexual dysfunction will remain controversial.


Various hormone levels were monitored during therapy, and it did not appear that there were major changes in the group as a whole (Table 2). Cortisol levels rose significantly from baseline to the first dose of yohimbine. When the hormone levels were evaluated in responders vs nonresponders (Table 3), slight differences were noted. Free testosterone levels were higher at baseline in the responders but did not increase significantly with the higher doses of yohimbine. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were not significantly higher at baseline in the responders, and they did not change with the higher dose of yohimbine. Cortisol levels appeared to increase in both groups with increased doses of yohimbine, significantly more so in responders than in nonresponders (P=0.03).

Another study discovered that nicotine significantly reduced participants' physical arousal in response to erotic films; the erections achieved by study participants who had ingested nicotine were 23% smaller than those who hadn't. This is in spite of the fact that participants didn't report feeling any less psychologically aroused by the erotic films.


Several studies (15–17) have shown an inverse relationship between physical activity levels and biomarkers of inflammation in both the healthy individuals and subjects with cardiovascular condition. Studies (18–21) have also reported the role of exercise in the management of erectile dysfunction. The majority of these studies are subjective, retrospective case series and non randomized non controlled studies. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are generally accepted as the most valid method for determining the efficacy of a therapeutic intervention, because the biases associated with other experimental designs can be avoided (22). Therefore, the purpose of the present Meta analysis study was to determine the role and effect of aerobic exercise in the management of erectile dysfunction in randomized controlled trials.
Yohimbe bark (pronounced yoh-heem-buh) is an herbal supplement associated with anti-aging effects. It is used to naturally treat erectile dysfunction, low libido, hormonal imbalances and symptoms like low energy. Yohimbe has a long history of use in Western Africa, where the plant originates. It’s still grown there today, especially for its apparent aphrodisiac abilities.
If you can achieve erection on your own, but you then are unable to keep it while with your partner, it could be related to anxiety, stress, or any sort of relationship issue. There has been extensive research conducted into all potential contributors to erectile dysfunction, including increased use of Internet pornography, assuming that excessive use of internet pornography can change the way the brain perceives arousal, therefore changing the desired response. Dan Savage also explores this topic on his love and sex advice podcast, the Savage Lovecast. If your dysfunction is related to anxiety, stress, or relationship issues, it may be time to explore therapy with a sex-positive provider, or even meditation.
There is no evidence that mild or even moderate alcohol consumption is bad for erectile function, says Ira Sharlip, MD, a urology professor at the University of California San Francisco School of Medicine. But chronic heavy drinking can cause liver damage, nerve damage, and other conditions -- such as interfering with the normal balance of male sex hormone levels -- that can lead to ED.

I recently treated a young twenty-something man with a primary complaint of erectile dysfunction. When he started to notice this issue, he attempted to treat it by performing lots of kegels. (If you haven’t heard of kegel exercises, they’re done by repeatedly contracting and relaxing the muscles that form part of the pelvic floor, as if you were trying to stop peeing mid-stream.) I found this man’s story interesting because, as we discovered, in his case the kegels actually did more harm than good. We found that once he stopped kegeling and allowed his pelvic muscles to relax, his erections became stronger and he was able to ejaculate without any issues.


The art of acupuncture has become the new treatment for everything from back pain, depression, and even ED. Impotence could be more of a state of mind, and acupuncture may help. Through this alternative therapy, fine needles are placed in various parts of the body to relieve pain or stress. Although there are many mixed studies for acupuncture and ED, many tend to confirm positive results. A 1999 study found acupuncture improved the quality of erection and even restored sexual activity in 39 percent of participants.
While balancing your sexual focus is singularly the most important aspect of solving a sexual dysfunction challenge, it's important to also address the physical component. This is especially true if you are over 40, or suffer from erectile dysfunction. Exercise increases blood flow and helps your body eliminate toxins. As well as this, exercise also improves your strength, stamina and form.

In the 1700s, pellagra was an endemic disease in northern Italy—which had not been known until maize (corn) was introduced from America. Italy gave the disease the name, “pelle agra” (pelle means skin; agra means rough). Casal had observed that patients with pellagra were all poor, subsisted mainly on maize, and rarely ate fresh meat. Because pellagra outbreaks occurred in regions of Europe where maize was a dominant food crop, the belief was that maize either carried a toxic substance or was a carrier of disease. When it was later noted that there were few pellagra outbreaks in Mesoamerica, where maize is a major food crop (and is processed), it was considered that the causes of pellagra may be due to factors other than toxins.
Yohimbe bark is an herbal supplement. Its species name is Pausinystalia yohimbe. Yohimbe comes from the bark of the evergreen Corynanthe yohimbe tree, which is in the plant family called Rubiaceae. The active ingredient in yohimbe, called yohimbine, is also used to make certain medications. Civilizations in Western Africa have used it for centuries. Today it’s studied for its ability to help treat conditions including erectile dysfunction/impotence, diabetes, depression, hypotension, and overuse of certain medications.
Poor sleep patterns can be a contributing factor for erectile dysfunction, Mucher says. One review published in the journal Brain Research emphasized the intricate relationship between the level of sex hormones like testosterone, sexual function, and sleep, noting that testosterone levels increase with improved sleep, and lower levels are associated with sexual dysfunction. Hormone secretion is controlled by the body’s internal clock, and sleep patterns likely help the body determine when to release certain hormones. 
That’s no joke. Like every part of the body, the male repro system needs the right nutrients for optimal health, from function to fertility. Studies have isolated several nutrients that are particularly beneficial. You can get them through these best foods for your penis, or these best proteins for your penis, but we’ve broken them down here by nutrient in case you want to ensure you’re getting enough. (And if you do decide to go the supplement route, as always, talk to your doctor and never exceed recommended dosages.)
Pelvic floor exercises are actually good as they can enhance the strength of the pelvic floor muscles. These exercises are commonly called Kegel exercises. These are the types of exercises that women usually perform in order to regain their muscle tone right after childbirth. They are also known to enhance urinary continence and overall male sexual health.
Taking zinc in supplement form is just one of many treatments for those looking for help with ED. Many men use supplements either to replace prescription medications like Viagra and Cialis, or to enhance the effectiveness of these medications. Some other natural supplements aimed at relieving ED symptoms include Korean red ginseng, L-Arginine, carnitine, and DHEA.
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