Gene therapy has the potential to become a future management option for patients with CAD and ED. Animal studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of gene therapy. A rat model was studied by Bivalacqua et al. to evaluate the effect of the combination of eNOS gene therapy and sildenafil. This research suggested that erectile response was greater in male rats with diabetes treated with combination eNOS gene therapy and sildenafil, compared with male rats with diabetes treated with eNOS gene therapy or sildenafil alone.76–78
Cardiovascular tolerance for sex is based on “functional reserve,” which corresponds to how closely the cardiovascular response to sex (in terms of heart rate, blood pressure level, and oxygen consumption) approaches the patient's peak response to exercise.85x85DeBusk, RF. Evaluating the cardiovascular tolerance for sex. Am J Cardiol. 2000; 86: 51F–56F
If your doctor says it's OK, you may be able to stop taking blood pressure medications temporarily to see if your sex life improves. To make sure your blood pressure remains within a safe range, you may need frequent blood pressure readings while you're not taking the blood pressure lowering medication that may be causing your sexual difficulties. This can be done with a home blood pressure monitoring device for convenience.

Diabetes mellitus is associated with both decreased erectile function and increased cardiovascular risk. The MMAS found that the age-adjusted probability of complete impotence was 3 times higher in patients with diabetes mellitus than in those without the disease.6x6Kloner, RA. Erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 2001; 36: 41–44 (49-51.)
There have been some studies to suggest that a placebo effect that improves ED may work for some men. One study found that men taking an oral placebo pill showed as much improvement in ED symptoms as men who took actual medication to improve ED. Conversely, men who were given therapeutic suggestions to improve ED did not see signs of symptom improvement.
Another risk factor is that men with type 2 diabetes may produce less than normal amounts of testosterone, a condition called hypogonadism. A 2007 study found that one-third of men with type 2 diabetes had low testosterone levels. Those men were also more likely to have ED, though the link may have to do with weight, not diabetes per se. Being overweight or obese is a risk factor for hypogonadism.

Crossref | PubMed | Scopus (35) | Google ScholarSee all References Also, if lower blood pressure level was the primary etiology of ED, all classes of antihypertensive agents should be expected to have relatively similar effects on erectile function because of their efficacy in lowering pressure, which has not been seen.6x6Kloner, RA. Erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 2001; 36: 41–44 (49-51.)


Cardiovascular disease remains our nation’s biggest killer, responsible for about one-third of deaths in the U.S.1 Erectile dysfunction (ED) is typically the first clinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease, making it a helpful early marker for men who are likely to die of heart attacks. There is a strong relationship between erectile dysfunction and high blood pressure, high cholesterol, angina, stroke, heart attack and a premature death.2, 3
Crossref | PubMed | Scopus (23) | Google ScholarSee all References Vardenafil has been shown to be significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of ED secondary to diabetes mellitus and after radical retropubic prostatectomy.69x69Goldstein, I, Young, JM, Fischer, J, Bangerter, K, Segerson, T, Taylor, T, and Vardenafil Diabetes Study Group. Vardenafil, a new phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes: a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled fixed-dose study. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 777–783
To date, there are no studies directly comparing the effectiveness of these three agents among diabetic men with ED, so it is impossible to state that one agent is superior to another in terms of effectiveness in diabetic patients. However, there are an number of studies that compare the individual agents to placebo in diabetic men with ED. For example, Boulton et al.41 completed a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of sildenafil in 219 men with ED and type 2 diabetes. They found that sildenafil resulted in a significant improvement in the ability to both achieve and maintain an erection adequate for sexual intercourse in men with type 2 diabetes. In a similar study, Rendell et al.42 randomized 268 diabetic men with ED to receive either sildenafil in a dose-escalation manner or placebo. At the conclusion of the 12-week study, 56% of the patients in the sildenafil arm reported improved erections, compared to 10% in the placebo arm (P < 0.001). Additionally, 61% of patients in the diabetic arm reported at least one successful attempt at sexual intercourse in the final month of the study, compared to 22% in the control arm (P < 0.001). Similar randomized studies have documented the effectiveness of both tadalafil43 and vardenafil44 in the treatment of diabetes-related ED.
Contraindications for TTh include (for detailed listing, please refer to Buvat et al.45) patients with breast or prostate cancer, while patients with a palpable prostate nodule or induration, or prostate-specific antigen >4 ng/mL (or >3 ng/mL in men at high risk for prostate cancer, such as African-Americans or men with first-degree relatives with prostate cancer), should first undergo urological evaluation. Testosterone therapy is contraindicated also in patients with haematocrit >50% (TTh increases haematocrit) and uncontrolled congestive heart failure (risk of fluid retention). Risk for adverse CVD events may be increased in patients and with the mode of treatment epitomized in the study of Basaria et al.46 (see earlier).

Chlamydia and erectile dysfunction: What's the link? Some people who have chlamydia also experience erectile dysfunction (ED), which involves problems getting or maintaining an erection. Chlamydia can infect the prostate gland, leading to prostatitis, pain, and ED. In this article, learn more about the link between this common infection and ED, and treatments for both. Read now

Causes of ED may be of primary developmental origin or secondary. Lack of sex hormone in the early developmental stage of male children is the major cause of primary ED. The secondary cause of ED involves arteriosclerosis, diabetes or psychogenic disturbances. Other secondary factors may include hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and tobacco use. The primary causes of ED are beyond the scope of this review; we will not be discussing the neurovascular mechanisms pertaining to ED and will focus on the relationship between IHD and ED.

Andersson said the results came as a surprise because erectile dysfunction is associated with an increased risk of heart disease in otherwise healthy men. However, previous studies have associated the use of PDE5 inhibitors with a decreased blood pressure in the left ventricle, which reduces the amount of work required to pump blood and therefore could help explain why the drugs might benefit people with heart failure. PDE5 inhibitors were initially developed to treat angina, a type of chest pain that results from constricted arteries.

Crossref | PubMed | Google ScholarSee all References After controlling for age, trauma, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, a study of 97 young patients with ED who underwent selective pudendal angiography showed a significant relationship between lifetime cigarette smoking and the degree of internal pudendal and common penile arterial atherosclerosis.28x28Rosen, MP, Greenfield, AJ, Walker, TG et al. Cigarette smoking: an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in the hypogastric-cavernous arterial bed of men with arteriogenic impotence. J Urol. 1991; 145: 759–763
“I’m hoping this study will drive that (tie) a little bit harder and faster so that physicians will routinely be including ED when they’re screening patients for cardiovascular disease,” he said. “Doctors should ask the question and consider whether hardening of the arteries is occurring, ask about family history and signs or symptoms like chest pain with exertion, and spend the requisite amount of time to find out what’s going on.”

Undoubtedly, heart disease is and will continue to be one of the major health problems of modern society. Approximately one death every forty seconds occurs due to cardiovascular (CV) disease in the United States alone and arterial hypertension is one of the greatest culprits for it[1]. Considering the fact that around 25% of the global population suffer from arterial hypertension, predicted to reach 1.5 billion people in the foreseeable future, it is easily deducted that a respectful part of the general population is under major and constant CV risk[2,3].
Hey folks, It's great to have met you, I really do hope that you enjoyed this article and found it helpful and informative. I Suffered from ED for a few years before taking a short while to reverse it after going down the usual route of those little blue (and expensive) pills, (not an actual cure but a treatment to temporarily relieve the symptoms).Be sure to check out My Highly Recommended products and start taking positive steps in the right direction to cure your erectile dysfunction. And don't forget to grab your free copy of The Testosterone Report and The Morning Wood Report
PDE-5 inhibitors amplify the intacavernosal production of cGMP in response to nitric oxide. This is achieved through the inhibition of cGMP's breakdown by the enzyme, PDE-5. If the predominant abnormality in the individual EDDM patient is molecular, the higher tissue levels of cGMP will overcome these inhibitory factors and the patient will regain erectile function. If the physical structure (eg, the compliance) of the cavernosal tissue has been significantly compromised by apoptosis of smooth muscle or increased collagen deposits, restoration of erectile function will not be achieved. These structural changes explain the lower efficacy rates of PDE-5 inhibitors in EDDM than in the general population.
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A component of the increased risk conferred by ED could be testosterone deficiency.24 Low testosterone leads to increased levels of total and LDL cholesterol, as well as to increased production of pro-inflammatory markers and mediators.25 Endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial wall thickness, stiffening, and calcification also ensue. On this basis it has been hypothesized that chronically lowered testosterone may increase CVD risk. Indeed, androgen deficiency has emerged as a predictor of CV events, as well as of all-cause and CV mortality, both in the general population and in patients with CV risk factors, with hypertension, with established CVD, and with ED.26 Viewed from the opposite angle, higher serum testosterone showed a protective role for CV events in elderly men.27 A 2010 meta-analysis limited to studies in middle-aged men found no association between total testosterone (TT) levels and CVD risk.28 However, a more recent meta-analysis involving a larger number of studies identified significant associations between androgen deficiency and increased risk of CVD and CVD mortality.29 It should be stressed, however, that the nature of these studies cannot prove causality. The possibility that low testosterone may be an epiphenomenon, marking poor general health rather than modulating CVD risk per se has to be explored.
Before a man concludes that oral drugs don’t work for him, he should have his testosterone levels checked to rule out hormone deficiency as the cause of (or as a contributor to) his sexual dysfunction. Other symptoms of low testosterone include a low sex drive and infertility. Checking testosterone levels requires a blood test. If a man’s levels of testosterone are decreased or at the lower end of normal, his doctor may prescribe supplemental testosterone therapy, either as testosterone injections or testosterone gel, which is applied daily to the skin. In some cases, testosterone therapy alone can resolve sexual dysfunction, or it can be combined with the use of oral erectile dysfunction drugs.
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