At the same time, people with diabetes are susceptible to a type of blood vessel damage known as endothelial dysfunction. A recent study found that men with ED are at a greater risk of heart disease, which is also associated with endothelial dysfunction. If blood vessels aren't in good working order, the penis may not get enough blood for an erection.
Impotence, also called erectile dysfunction (ED), can be a very frustrating problem. Some men are able to achieve an erection but are not able to maintain one. Others are not able to achieve one at all. Causes of impotence can be both physiological (affecting mostly the body and organs) or psychological (affecting the mind). Luckily, there are natural remedies for impotence you can try.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common in cardiac patients and shares the same risk factors--smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. Sexual activity is not unduly stressful to the heart and, providing patients are properly assessed using established guidelines, sexual intercourse can be enjoyed without increased risk. The treatment of ED in patients with cardiovascular disease has been transformed by the introduction of the oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, the first of which was sildenafil. Success in restoring erectile function is possible in up to 80% of patients (depending on the aetiology) with minimal adverse effects. A synergistic hypotensive effect with nitrates, and almost certainly nicorandil, is the only major contraindication. ED in asymptomatic patients may be a marker of silent vascular disease or increased vascular risk factors and should alert the physician to the need for cardiac risk screening. ED is common in patients with cardiovascular disease and should be routinely enquired about. ED is a distressing condition for the man and his partner, and severely impairs quality of life. Patients with cardiovascular disease and patients with diabetes represent the largest group of patients with ED, the majority of whom benefit from the drug therapies currently available. Addressing ED in patients with cardiovascular disease can lead to a substantial improvement in quality of life and success is not difficult to achieve.
Testosterone therapy in hypogonadism modulates metabolic components associated with CV risk. The majority of prospective clinical studies indicates that treatment achieving testosterone levels within physiological limits has beneficial or neutral effects on a lipid profile other than HDL-C, beneficial or neutral effects on inflammatory mediators, and generally beneficial effects on glycaemic state.25 The lean body mass is typically increased in hypogonadal subjects, and visceral adiposity is decreased in several studies and unchanged in the remainder. Such metabolic effects have raised interest on the potential impact on cardiovascular health. Regarding symptoms in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions (angina or heart failure) TTh has been either neutral or beneficial.25 Regarding CVD risk, available clinical trial data indicate that the use of testosterone in middle-aged to elderly men does not increase cardiovascular risk25 with the exception of one study in very frail (substantial limitation of mobility and a high rate of comorbidities) elderly subjects that used an off-label high, and rapid escalation, dosing regimen.46 Prospective data from large, well-designed, long-term trials of TTh are warranted.
While a widely held perception is that CVD drugs cause ED, data attest towards the contrary and some agents may be even beneficial.41 Only thiazide diuretics lead clearly to ED, while some older beta-blockers also do so, but the side-effect of ED was very low (∼3%) when the patient was blinded for the drug administration.42 In fact, the vasodilating nebivolol may even improve erectile function.35,43 ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, and calcium-channel blockers are reported to have neutral or even a positive effect on erectile function35,41,43 but more evidence is needed. Regarding statins, the largest body of evidence point towards a beneficial effect.44 A negative effect has been reported in high statin doses, possibly related to a potential reduction in serum testosterone levels, but this dose dependency warrants further investigation. In terms of patient management, when ED onset and therapy initiation are linked and a cause-and-effect association is presumed, a short period of drug withdrawal with monitoring for ED resolution for verification may be an option. In patients who developed ED long after the initiation of CV drug treatment, sexual dysfunction is less likely to be drug associated and PDE5 inhibition therapy may be initiated.
Ginkgo Biloba is promoted to treat conditions ranging from hypertension to Alzheimer’s dementia. There is evidence that shows improvement of memory enhancements in the geriatric population (47), improvement in terms of cognitive function via effect on cerebral vasculature (48), improvement of claudication distance and cutaneous ulcers in patients with peripheral vascular disease (49). Ginkgo Biloba extract is proposed to induce NO in endothelial cells and thus causing relaxation of vascular smooth muscles. Animal studies have reported relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosal smooth muscle cells with the use of Ginkgo Biloba (50). Adverse effects include headaches, major bleeding (in patient who are taking warfarin concurrently) and seizures with reported fatality (36).
One study the authors reviewed measured these changes in middle-aged men with and without coronary artery disease. This study found that the peak heart rate during intercourse was lower than heart rates measured during the patients' normal daily activities. The study participants' peak oxygen consumption levels during intercourse were moderate -- comparable to their oxygen consumption levels during moderate activities such as walking on level ground at 3 to 4 miles per hour, climbing stairs slowly or doing general housework such as vacuuming.
PubMed | Google ScholarSee all References As with sildenafil, use of nitrate or NO-donor medications is contraindicated while taking tadalafil because of the potential for marked hypotensive interactions.74x74Gresser, U and Gleiter, CH. Erectile dysfunction: comparison of efficacy and side effects of the PDE-5 inhibitors sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil—review of the literature. Eur J Med Res. 2002; 7: 435–446
Chronic heart failure often develops after other cardiac problems have damaged or weakened the heart, leaving it too weak or too stiff to fill and pump efficiently. Many underlying heart conditions can lead to heart failure. It can develop quickly after damage caused by a heart attack, or it can develop gradually after years of high blood pressure or coronary artery disease.
PubMed | Google ScholarSee all References Unlike sildenafil, vardenafil has been associated with a slight prolongation of the QT interval and thus should not be used by patients with a congenital QT prolongation or by any patient currently taking antiarrhythmic medications.67x67Vardenafil (levitra) for erectile dysfunction. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2003; 45: 77–78
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (53) | Google ScholarSee all References Early work in this field, performed by Masters and Johnson in 1966, involved evaluation of young patients in a laboratory setting and found that heart rates and systolic blood pressure levels during sexual activity approached levels seen during maximal exercise.84x84Stein, RA. Cardiovascular response to sexual activity. Am J Cardiol. 2000; 86: 27F–29F
Gutiérrez-González, Enrique; Castelló, Adela; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Llorca, Javier; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Salcedo-Bellido, Inmaculada; Aragonés, Nuria; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Alguacil, Juan; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; García-Esquinas, Esther; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Amiano, Pilar; Romaguera, Dora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz. “Dietary Zinc and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Spain: MCC-Spain Study.” Nutrients. Jan 2019, 11(1).
PubMed | Google ScholarSee all References A dose-related phenomenon with propranolol use was suggested by another study, which showed that patients receiving propranolol dosages exceeding 120 mg/d developed ED at a higher rate than patients who received lower dosages of the same medication.43x43Warren, SC and Warren, SG. Propranolol and sexual impotence [letter]. Ann Intern Med. 1977; 86: 112
The vacuum device is approved by USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of ED since 1982. Vacuum therapy (VT) works by creating a negative pressure environment around the penis through the use of a cylindrical housing attached to a pump mechanism, which can be manually-operated or battery-operated. Vacuum draws mixed arterial and venous blood into the corporal bodies and distends the corporal sinusoids to create an erected penis. If a pre-loaded constriction band is applied over the base of the penis to prevent outflow of blood and maintain tumescence for intercourse, it is considered a vacuum constriction device (VCD). It is recommended that the constriction band be removed within 30 mins to return the penis to its flaccid state, as prolonged application of the constriction band can compromise both arterial and venous blood flow (7). Some minor side effects associated with VCD are penile discomfort, coldness, numbness, bruising and pain on ejaculation. Major side effects such as penile skin necrosis, gangrene, urethral injury and Peyronie’s disease are very rare (8).
Gazzaruso C, Solerte SB, Pujia A, Coppola A, Vezzoli M, Salvucci F, Valenti C, Giustina A, Garzaniti A. Erectile dysfunction as a predictor of cardiovascular events and death in diabetic patients with angiographically proven asymptomatic coronary artery disease: a potential protective role for statins and 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors, J Am Coll Cardiol , 2008, vol. 51 (pg. 2040-2044)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2007.10.069
In an open-label study, 8 patients monitored with a Swan-Ganz catheter were given a total of 40 mg of sildenafil in 4 intravenous transfusions (the equivalent of 1 to 3 times the plasma concentration after an oral dose of 100 mg).62x62Jackson, G, Benjamin, N, Jackson, N, and Allen, MJ. Effects of sildenafil citrate on human hemodynamics. Am J Cardiol. 1999; 83: 13C–20C
The use of shock wave therapy has revolutionized the treatment of many aspects of medicine. High intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy has been used for the treatment of nephro-urolithiasis while medium intensity shockwave therapy is used by orthopaedic surgeons to treat joint pain as well as tendinitis. Low intensity shockwaves therapy was first noted to improve ischaemia-induced myocardial dysfunction in animal studies when low intensity shockwaves were applied to porcine myocardium (13). Shockwaves induces a localized stress on cell membranes in the same way that shear stress affects endothelial cell membranes (14) and this triggers the release of angiogenic factors, such as increased NO production through increased activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (15). These shockwaves also cause membrane hyperpolarization (16), activation of the Ras signaling pathway, non-enzymatic synthesis of NO and induction of stress fibers and intercellular gaps (17).
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (46) | Google ScholarSee all References The Princeton Consensus Panel provided guidelines (Table 4) for physicians regarding patients who are being evaluated for their level of risk in resuming sexual activity.51x51DeBusk, R, Drory, Y, Goldstein, I et al. Management of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease: recommendations of the Princeton Consensus Panel. Am J Cardiol. 2000; 86: 62F–68F
ED is a common complication of diabetes and people with diabetes are also prone to developing cardiovascular complications.48 The risk of ED is relatively high in patients with known CVD. This was supported by a study of men with known CVD, in which ED was substantially predictive of all-cause mortality and the composite of CVD death, admission for heart failure, MI and stroke.17 Macroangiopathy, microangiopathy and endothelial dysfunction are among the mechanisms by which diabetes causes ED.
And diabetes affects more than the blood system. “Diabetes also results in nerve dysfunction and, in the penile shaft, [eventually] the muscle starts to atrophy and is replaced by scar tissue or collagen rather than smooth muscle. That’s the ultimate end result in men,” explains urologist Ajay Nehra, MD, professor of urology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. That scenario — damage to all the tissues that support your penis — is what could happen if you do not get and keep your diabetes under control.
Before Viagra hit the market in 1998, there was no proven treatment for erectile dysfunction that men could take in pill form. Doctors were interested in yohimbe, an herb that increases heart rate and blood pressure. Some doctors prescribed it to their patients in combination with other treatments for erectile dysfunction. Even then it was not a recommended treatment and is still not today. Studies have not proven that it works.
Diabetic damage doesn’t stop with these small vessels, he said. “You really have two parallel situations: You need blood flow that feeds the muscle of the penis, and you need an artery dedicated to bringing blood rapidly when a man becomes aroused and wants to be sexually active,” he said. “That artery is also affected by diabetes. They’ll say ‘I can get a partial erection, but I can’t maintain it.’ ”
Ginseng is the most common ingredient among top-selling supplements for men’s sexual health (36). The English word ginseng derives from the Chinese term renshen. Ren means “person” and shen means “plant root”. This plant has been named in this manner as its roots resemble the lower limbs of a human, Traditionally, ginseng has been used to restore and enhance the normal well-being of the body. The effects are due to ginseng’s reactions with the central nervous system, metabolism, immune function and cardiovascular system. The principal active compounds are triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. Animal studies have suggested that specific ginsenosides may be responsible for ginseng-mediated effects on copulatory behavior (37). Ginsenoside induces smooth muscle relaxation by hyperpolarizing the smooth muscle membrane via activation of large-conductance KCa channels (38).
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (95) | Google ScholarSee all References Since then, several other oral PDE-5 inhibitors have been developed, including vardenafil and tadalafil, which generated considerable interest in both the scientific and lay communities. There was also much concern about their safety, especially in men with cardiovascular disease. Compared with the 2 newer PDE-5 inhibitors vardenafil and tadalafil, sildenafil has been available for a much longer time; therefore, the vast majority of published cardiovascular safety studies have been performed on this medication. Recommended starting and maximum doses of oral PDE-5 inhibitors are shown in Table 1.
Crossref | PubMed | Scopus (165) | Google ScholarSee all References Typically, the response to sexual activity is no more than an increase in heart rate to 130 beats/min and an increase in systolic blood pressure level to 170 mm Hg.51x51DeBusk, R, Drory, Y, Goldstein, I et al. Management of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease: recommendations of the Princeton Consensus Panel. Am J Cardiol. 2000; 86: 62F–68F
88. Böhm M, Baumhäkel M, Teo K, Sleight P, Probstfield J, Gao P, Mann JF, Diaz R, Dagenais GR, Jennings GL, et al. Erectile dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events in high-risk patients receiving telmisartan, ramipril, or both: The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial/Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (ONTARGET/TRANSCEND) Trials. Circulation. 2010;121:1439–1446. [PubMed]
Just because a product claims to be natural doesn't mean it's safe. Many herbal remedies and dietary supplements can cause side effects and dangerous interactions when taken with certain medications. Talk to your doctor before you try an alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction — especially if you're taking medications or you have a chronic health problem such as heart disease or diabetes.
“I’m hoping this study will drive that (tie) a little bit harder and faster so that physicians will routinely be including ED when they’re screening patients for cardiovascular disease,” he said. “Doctors should ask the question and consider whether hardening of the arteries is occurring, ask about family history and signs or symptoms like chest pain with exertion, and spend the requisite amount of time to find out what’s going on.”
A man needs to try the medicine at least four times before he concludes that it doesn’t work for him. It is unlikely that a man with diabetes who has other medical problems such as high blood pressure, is taking multiple medicines, and has not had sexual intercourse for several years will be able to have an erection adequate for intercourse the first time he takes a pill. Most men need to try the medicine several times before they have the desired results.