The body’s source for nitric oxide production is the amino acid L-arginine, which is naturally found in many foods. The average American ingests about 3,000–5,000 mg of L-arginine per day, as it is an amino acid naturally contained in many foods. Meats of all varieties, nuts, and dairy products are rich in L-arginine, so the body is accustomed to intake levels of several thousand milligrams every day.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Finding a potential early sign of heart disease is vital: Every minute in the United States someone dies from a heart disease-related event. Doctors know to watch for risks like obesity and high blood pressure; however, Men’s Health reports 50 percent of men who die from heart disease have never had one of these symptoms. For younger men, treating ED as an indicator of heart health could be a lifesaver.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual problem affecting many men irrespective of cultures, beliefs and nationalities. While medical therapy for ED has been revolutionized by the advent of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and intracavernosal injection of vasoactive agents, recent technological advances such stem cell therapy, low intensity shock wave and newer generation of penile prosthesis implant offer hope to men who do not respond to conventional medical therapy. In contrast, traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) focuses on the restoration and better overall bodily regulation with the use of various herbal and animal products as well as exercises to invigorate qi (energy) in vital organs. Western medicine involves an analysis of ED symptom and underlying causes that contribute to ED, while TCM emphases the concept of holism and harmonization of body organs to achieve natural sexual life. The following article reviews our current understanding regarding the philosophical approach, and evaluates the evidence surrounding various ED therapies between mainstream Western Medicine and TCM.
The cardiovascular effects of sildenafil during exercise in patients with known or probable cardiovascular disease were studied in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of 105 men with a mean age of 66 years.63x63Arruda-Olson, AM, Mahoney, DW, Nehra, A, Leckel, M, and Pellikka, PA. Cardiovascular effects of sildenafil during exercise in men with known or probable coronary artery disease: a randomized crossover trial. JAMA. 2002; 287: 719–725
Crossref | PubMed | Scopus (539) | Google ScholarSee all References Possible etiologies for ED secondary to hypertension include vascular damage due to hypertensive changes as well as hormonal abnormalities such as elevated prolactin levels.30x30Jaffe, A, Chen, Y, Kisch, ES, Fischel, B, Alon, M, and Stern, N. Erectile dysfunction in hypertensive subjects: assessment of potential determinants. Hypertension. 1996; 28: 859–862
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
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According to Harvard Special Health Report Erectile Dysfunction, one study in the European Heart Journal looked at men newly diagnosed with heart disease, but without ED, who started treatment with the beta-blocker atenolol (Tenormin). Some of the study participants were told about the sexual side effect of the blood pressure drug, and ED was reported by almost one-third of the participants. In contrast, among those who were not told the drug's name or its side effects, only 3% said they experienced ED.
Crossref | PubMed | Scopus (174) | Google ScholarSee all References This study concluded that patients who have stable coronary artery disease who can exercise to 4.5 metabolic equivalents (METs) with a negative or mildly positive stress test and without angina or hypotension can safely take sildenafil. Physicians who prescribe sildenafil should counsel their patients that, if they have chest pain or other cardiac symptoms with sexual intercourse, they should not take nitrates and should immediately call their physician.66x66Jackson, G. Sexual intercourse and stable angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol. 2000; 86: 35F–37F
Mancia G, Laurent S, Agabiti-Rosei E, Ambrosioni E, Burnier M, Caulfield MJ, Cifkova R, Clément D, Coca A, Dominiczak A, Erdine S, Fagard R, Farsang C, Grassi G, Haller H, Heagerty A, Kjeldsen SE, Kiowski W, Mallion JM, Manolis A, Narkiewicz K, Nilsson P, Olsen MH, Rahn KH, Redon J, Rodicio J, Ruilope L, Schmieder RE, Struijker-Boudier HA, van Zwieten PA, Viigimaa M, Zanchetti A. European Society of HypertensionReappraisal of European guidelines on hypertension management: a European Society of Hypertension Task Force document, J Hypertens , 2009, vol. 27 (pg. 2121-2158)https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e328333146d
When the diagnosis of vasculogenic sexual dysfunction has been carefully reached, physicians will have to come up with an effective treatment. Appropriate lifestyle measures and adoption of a healthier attitude could represent an initial, efficient and cost-effective treatment option. This is due to the fact that traditional CV risk factors such as hypertension, physical inactivity-obesity, smoking and dyslipidemia have been consistently linked with endothelial and consequently sexual dysfunction.In this context, it has been demonstrated that moderate physical activity can reduce up to 30% the risk of erectile dysfunction contrary to sedentary life, which exerts a deleterious effect. Interestingly, the beneficial effect of physical exercise on sexual dysfunction seems to be independent of its favorable impact on the general cardiovascular profile. In terms of caloric reduction, Mediterranean diet exerts a positive effect on sexual function parameters of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, combined physical exercise and caloric restriction can result in weight reduction which in succession can reduce up to 30% the risk of obesity-associated erectile dysfunctio.
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L-arginine, an amino acid that is naturally present in the body and helps make nitric oxide, supports a successful erection. Nitric oxide is responsible for making the blood vessels relax, which helps sustain an erection for men. A 1999 study, observed the effects of six weeks of high-dose (5 grams/day) orally administered nitric oxide (NO) donor L-arginine on men with organic ED. Thirty-one percent of those who took 5 grams/day of L-arginine experienced significant improvements in sexual function. Burns told Medical Daily, “l-arginine and deer antler velvet” have been the most popular go-to natural treatments for men.
Abstract | Full Text | Full Text PDF | PubMed | Scopus (272) | Google ScholarSee all References No data suggested adverse interactions between sildenafil and other drugs commonly used in the treatment of coronary artery disease, such as aspirin, heparin, or narcotics.10x10Kloner, RA and Zusman, RM. Cardiovascular effects of sildenafil citrate and recommendations for its use. Am J Cardiol. 1999; 84: 11N–17N
Crossref | PubMed | Scopus (165) | Google ScholarSee all References Typically, the response to sexual activity is no more than an increase in heart rate to 130 beats/min and an increase in systolic blood pressure level to 170 mm Hg.51x51DeBusk, R, Drory, Y, Goldstein, I et al. Management of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease: recommendations of the Princeton Consensus Panel. Am J Cardiol. 2000; 86: 62F–68F
PubMed | Google ScholarSee all References As with sildenafil, use of nitrate or NO-donor medications is contraindicated while taking tadalafil because of the potential for marked hypotensive interactions.74x74Gresser, U and Gleiter, CH. Erectile dysfunction: comparison of efficacy and side effects of the PDE-5 inhibitors sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil—review of the literature. Eur J Med Res. 2002; 7: 435–446
Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor in the development of atherosclerotic vascular changes and thus would be expected to play a role in the development of vasculogenic ED. The MMAS 9-year follow-up study found that the risk of developing moderate or complete ED in smokers was nearly doubled (odds ratio, 1.97) compared with that in matched nonsmokers.5x5Feldman, HA, Johannes, CB, Derby, CA et al. Erectile dysfunction and coronary risk factors: prospective results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Prev Med. 2000; 30: 328–338
Despite the existing controversies, available data so far imply the old generation b-blockers (e.g., propranolol) as the major culprits for sexual dysfunction with the newer ones (carvedilol, celiprolol) to exert a less pronounced negative effect[21-24]. A luminous exception to the rule, nebivolol, is a newer agent of its class which significantly ameliorates erectile dysfunction through increased nitric oxide generation, an effect consistently demonstrated in recent studies[25,26]. Diuretics, even on adjunct therapy, constitute another antihypertensive agent negatively associated with sexual function[27-29]. On the other hand, calcium antagonists and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors seem to demonstrate a neutral effect[30-32]. Interestingly, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) by blocking the vasoconstrictive action of angiotensin II seem to positively affect erectile function and are thus regarded as a first-line treatment in hypertensive patients with erectile dysfunction[22,25,33-35].
Talk with your doctor about your sexual health. Do not be shy or embarrassed. Your doctor has probably dealt with this issue before. If your doctor is an older man, he might even have ED. First, your doctor will figure out what is causing your ED, which can usually be done just by talking with you. Next, your doctor will look for risk factors for atherosclerosis (the Table) by asking you questions, checking your blood pressure, and performing a few blood tests. Identifying and successfully treating atherosclerotic risk factors can reduce the chance of developing major vascular events (heart attacks and strokes).
While a widely held perception is that CVD drugs cause ED, data attest towards the contrary and some agents may be even beneficial.41 Only thiazide diuretics lead clearly to ED, while some older beta-blockers also do so, but the side-effect of ED was very low (∼3%) when the patient was blinded for the drug administration.42 In fact, the vasodilating nebivolol may even improve erectile function.35,43 ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, and calcium-channel blockers are reported to have neutral or even a positive effect on erectile function35,41,43 but more evidence is needed. Regarding statins, the largest body of evidence point towards a beneficial effect.44 A negative effect has been reported in high statin doses, possibly related to a potential reduction in serum testosterone levels, but this dose dependency warrants further investigation. In terms of patient management, when ED onset and therapy initiation are linked and a cause-and-effect association is presumed, a short period of drug withdrawal with monitoring for ED resolution for verification may be an option. In patients who developed ED long after the initiation of CV drug treatment, sexual dysfunction is less likely to be drug associated and PDE5 inhibition therapy may be initiated.
The views expressed in this article intend to highlight alternative studies and induce conversation. They are the views of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of hims, and are for informational purposes only, even if and to the extent that this article features the advice of physicians and medical practitioners. This article is not, nor is it intended to be, a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment, and should never be relied upon for specific medical advice.
• Blood Vessels: Diabetes damages blood vessels, especially the smallest blood vessels such as those in the penis. Diabetes can also cause heart disease and other circulatory problems. Proper blood flow is absolutely crucial to achieving erection. “Erection is a hydraulic phenomenon that occurs involuntarily,” says Arturo Rolla, MD, of Harvard University School of Medicine. “Nobody can will an erection!” Anything that limits or impairs blood flow can interfere with the ability to achieve an erection, no matter how strong one’s sexual desire.