The term “heart disease” is often used interchangeably with the term “cardiovascular disease.” Cardiovascular disease generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect your heart’s muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease.
Medicines known as PDE5 inhibitors can help two-thirds of men with ED. These include Viagra (sildenafil), Cialis (tadalafil) and Levitra (vardenafil). You may need to take several doses over time before they work properly, and you may need to adjust the dose. National guidelines say you can be prescribed these drugs from six months after a heart attack, providing your condition is stable.
Sildenafil should be taken 1–2 h before intercourse. It is important to tell patients that the drug’s effectiveness requires sexual stimulation. One patient in our clinic recently complained that he had no effect from taking sildenafil. It was later discovered that he took the pill and then sat on his couch and read a book about how to grow tomatoes!

Heart disease describes a range of conditions that affect your heart. Diseases under the heart disease umbrella include blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and heart defects you’re born with (congenital heart defects), among others.The term “heart disease” is often used interchangeably with the term “cardiovascular disease.” Cardiovascular disease generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions such as those that affect your heart’s muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease.
The pathophysiological basis for the predictive ability of ED has been discussed above. It should be emphasized, however, that ED should not only be viewed as a manifestation of obstructive CAD that could be identified by ischaemia revealing tests. Owing to the inflammatory and pro-thrombotic activation of the disease,13 it should also be regarded as an early warning sign of an imminent acute event (mainly acute myocardial infarction)22 due to the rupture of a subclinical plaque, and thus identification of the risk should ideally include plaque vulnerability tests. Finally, an issue that has important clinical implications is by how long the clinical manifestation of ED precedes the clinical manifestation of CAD. According to studies, men with ED and no cardiac symptoms have an increased incidence of experiencing a cardiac event, both acute and chronic, in the ensuing 2–5 years, thus providing a ‘window of opportunity’ for risk reduction management in these patients.2
Since their introduction in the therapeutic field, more than a decade ago, PDE-5 inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of sexual dysfunction. By blocking the activity of PDE-5 isoenzyme, localized throughout the smooth muscle cells of the vasculature (genital vessels included), PDE-5 inhibitors increase the levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate thus exerting vasodilating properties and facilitating penile erection[40-42]. Due to these properties, sildenafil was the first drug of its class to receive wide acceptance. Its short half-life, food interactions and the associated visual disturbances however, paved the way for the development of newer PDE-5 inhibitors. As such vardenafil with its more rapid onset of action, and tadalafil with its longer half-life and the lack of food interactions or side effects, have offered significant alternatives to sildenafil[43-50].
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PubMed | Google ScholarSee all References They evaluated 40 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent coronary artery catheterization and whose penile brachial index (PBI) was measured by Doppler ultrasonography. Although a positive correlation was noted between the PBI and the severity of coronary artery obstruction, the relationship was not strong. Also, the degree of PBI abnormality did not effectively stratify the patients according to the severity of their coronary artery blockage. This study concluded that the PBI used alone would not be an effective predictor of ischemic heart disease.
Preclinical and clinical trials of these oral agents have clearly demonstrated that they are well tolerated by most DM patients and have an efficacy rate superior to other oral agents. The ultimate result is an improved quality of life (QOL) in EDDM patients. With a greater willingness of DM patients to discuss and seek treatment for ED, it is highly probable that the use of these oral agents will continue to increase. The goal of this article is to provide the physician and pharmacist with a background and working knowledge of these oral agents and their present-day alternatives.

Since time immemorial, TCM has been adopted by many cultures and is widely practiced in Asian countries despite paucity of level 1 clinical evidence and limited published safety records. TCM is more congruent with Asian values, beliefs and philosophical orientation to health, simple administration, readily available and ease of access or procurement, and general belief that TCM is safer. While Asian males are clearly different from their Western counterparts with respect to biology, culture and beliefs, the practice of TCM appears to be adopted by many Western nations lately. Many men seek TCM to avoid embarrassing visits to physicians and potential side effects of pharmaceutical drugs, or after becoming frustrated with the outcome of modern medicine. Patients are choosing to take more responsibility for their health by exploring a variety of non-pharmaceutical drugs and wellness practices. Furthermore, TCM such as herbal medicine does not address a specific organ system only and is meant to restore and realign the vital energy within the body, which is responsible for ageing, clinical diseases and the deterioration of bodily function; while in Western medicine, each pill is intended for a specific organ/system and that a patient may need a collection of pills to treat multiple comorbidities, rendering modern medicine less attractive to TCM.
Relaxation of erectile tissue requires nitric oxide from nonadrenergic-noncholinergic neurons and the endothelium.21 Penile tissue from diabetic men with ED demonstrates impaired neurogenic and endothelium-mediated relaxation of smooth muscle,22 increased accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs),23 and upregulation arginase, a competitor with nitric oxide synthase for its substrate L-arginine.24 Normal responses to direct smooth muscle relaxants in most of these studies implies that the impairments are due to decreased synthesis, release, or activity of nitric oxide. The fundamental mechanisms mediating these changes are thought to be the same as for other diabetic complications: increased polyol pathway flux, intracellular accumulation of AGEs, activation of protein kinase C, and increased flux through the hexosamine pathway.25
In many of these cases, a discussion between the physician, the man with erectile dysfunction, and possibly his partner can help to resolve the issues leading to treatment failure. For men who experience severe side effects, can’t take the drugs for other reasons (such as taking medicines such as nitroglycerin), or don’t respond in spite of further education on the correct use of the drugs, there are other treatment options that can help most men remain sexually active.
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