Impotence, or erectile dysfunction (ED), is the inability for a man to sustain an erection long enough for normal, satisfying sexual intercourse.  To understand the underlying causes of impotence, it helps to know the basics about how an erection develops, along with potential problems that get in the way. Erections begin in the brain with a thought related to sexual desire. Then a chemical message travels from the brain to the penis. Blood flow to the penis increases as blood vessels leading to the reproductive system relax and allow for increased circulation.
Sometimes low libido or sexual dysfunction can occur due to low testosterone levels. But that doesn’t necessarily mean you need a testosterone supplement. Your body usually can produce adequate testosterone, but it needs downtime to convert precursor hormones into testosterone. If you’re burning the candle at both ends, your body will convert those precursors into cortisol instead. So rest, relax, and allow your body to build up its testosterone stores.
When considering vitamin supplementation for erectile dysfunction, one of the first vitamins that you may come across in literature would be Vitamin D. This is a vitamin that can be easily obtained through many types of dairy products like milk, cheese, and yogurt and is also in abundance if you live in a tropical climate. Sunlight is able to give us a natural dose of vitamin D daily. [6] Although vitamin D is usually associated with improving bone strength and prevention osteoporosis, another valuable feat of vitamin D is the fact that it helps reduce atherosclerosis. Studies confirm that there is a similar underlying mechanism that occurs between conditions like cardiovascular disease and erectile dysfunction. As blood vessels are damaged and filled with plaques, the diameter for blood to flow through is gradually reduced. After a few years, the amount of blood may be reduced substantially. Vitamin D is able to help activate cells that remove some of these dangerous plaques and delay the onset of ED. [7]
Most importantly, herbal supplements are not well regulated in the United States.  Studies have shown that 40-50% of herbal supplements do not even contain the supposed main ingredient, and many contain substances that are not listed which may have dangerous side effects2.  Another study found that over two thirds of the products tested had substituted other plant species for the plants listed on the label, and a third of products also contained other fillers or contaminants3.  A study by the New York State Attorney General of herbal products sold at GNC, Target, Walgreens, and Walmart found that four out of every five products didn’t contain the ingredient they claimed!  Fourteen US states and territories have petitioned Congress to regulate the herbal supplements industry.
If you want to go long enough to help your date reach the big O, reach for some oatmeal. The popular breakfast cereal is a good source of l-arginine, an amino acid commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction. Plus, whole grains like oatmeal also help lower cholesterol levels. Having high cholesterol can lead to atherosclerosis, a condition that clogs and narrows arteries, impairing blood flow. This could eventually lead to heart problems, but you’ll likely notice issues below the belt first. The arteries surrounding the genital area are narrower than coronary blood vessels, so they’re more susceptible to clots. Simply put, the better your cholesterol levels are, the better your erection will be, too.
These underrated kernels are rich in zinc, and people with higher levels in their system have been shown to have a stronger drive than those with lower levels. They’re also a good source of magnesium, which boosts testosterone and keeps sperm healthy and viable. Pine nuts are the primary ingredient in pesto, so go Italian on your next date night, or sprinkle them on a salad with avocado, tomatoes and salmon.
How common is impotence? According to findings from several studies, including “The Massachusetts Male Aging Study,” overall prevalence for men between 40–70 years old is around 52 percent (or around 30 percent of all men between 18–60 years old). That’s right — nearly half of all men over 40 experience erectile dysfunction symptoms at some point. Not surprisingly, research demonstrates that impotence is increasingly prevalent with age. Around 40 percent of men in their 40s experience sexual dysfunction. Up to 70 percent of men in their 70s experience ED. (1) Every year more than 617,000 new cases of impotence occur in the United States alone.
Some studies show that watermelon may have effects on erectile dysfunction that are similar to the ED drug Viagra and may also increase sexual desire. Watermelon is rich in beneficial ingredients known as phytonutrients. Phytonutrients are also antioxidants. One of their benefits is that they relax the blood vessels that supply an erection. Although watermelon is 92 percent water, the other 8 percent may work wonders for your heart and your sexual enjoyment.

Ginkgo biloba. Known primarily as a treatment for cognitive decline, ginkgo has also been used to treat erectile dysfunction -- especially cases caused by the use of certain antidepressant medications. But the evidence isn't very convincing. One 1998 study published in the Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy found that it did work. But a more rigorous study, published in Human Pharmacology in 2002, failed to replicate this finding. "Ginkgo has come out of fashion in the past few years," says Ronald Tamler, MD, assistant professor of medicine and codirector of the men's health program at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City. "That's because it doesn't do much. I can say that in my practice, I have not seen ginkgo work -- ever."

Vitamins and minerals are used in systems all over the body. Everywhere from your cardiovascular to your nervous system. It’s a lot to understand. So to help dispel some of the myths and outlandish claims, we’ll take a look at how five common vitamins and nutrients affect one very specific aspect of men’s health—erections. Turns out, vitamins can do more than just ward off the common cold.
Researchers discovered men who regularly consumed flavanoid-rich foods—especially those with anthocyanins, flavones, and flavanones—experienced a significantly reduced risk of the disorder than those who did not. Good news since the foods are already popular in American diets. Lead researcher Aedin Cassidy says, “…the top sources of anthocyanins, flavones and flavanones consumed in the U.S. are strawberries, blueberries, red wine, apples, pears and citrus products.”

“Obecalp” is “placebo” spelled backwards. It might help – treatment with inactive placebos (inert substances used in evaluation of new drug treatments) works about one-third of the time in scientific studies when patients don’t know they’re getting a fake drug. Placebos are generally safe since they contain no known active agent. (However, I personally never give patients inactive placebos, and many physicians regard them as unethical.)
The pilot study by Vardi et al. (18) showed that LIESWT was effective in treating men with ED, suggesting a physiologic impact of LIESWT on cavernosal hemodynamics. The LIESWT is an effective penile rehabilitation tool that improves erectile function and potentially reverses underlying ED. Recent meta-analysis (19) of 14 studies showed that LiESWT could significantly improve the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) [mean difference: 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99–3.00; P<0.0001] and Erection Hardness Score (EHS) (risk difference: 0.16; 95% CI, 0.04–0.29; P=0.01). In addition, the therapeutic efficacy was noted to last for at least 3 months. LiESWT has been cited to a potential cure for ED, unlike other well established non-surgical methods of treatment (i.e., PDE5i, ICI and VED) being on demand treatments.

In a study done to determine if vitamin D supplementation would actually help patients with ED, 143 patients with ED were tested to determine vitamin D levels. It was found that of these cases, 46 percent of patients suffered from substantial vitamin D deficiency and only 20 percent were found to have adequate levels of vitamin D. In these cases, it was also determined that inadequate arterial blood flow was the root cause of ED more commonly in patients with low vitamin D levels. [8] Vitamin D supplementation can improve both these parameters. 


A recent study found that men with erectile dysfunction who ate pistachio nuts every day for three weeks experienced significant improvement in sexual issues, including ED, sexual desire, and overall sexual satisfaction. The benefits of pistachios for erection problems may be due to a protein called arginine, which may help relax blood vessels. "This is another example of how good circulation is good for sexual health, which is good news because I eat a lot of pistachios," says Dr. Daneshgari.
Acupuncture. Acupuncture has been used for centuries to treat ED and impotence in China. A recent review of studies on acupuncture for erectile dysfunction was published in the British Journal of Urology International. After reviewing four studies, the authors concluded that there was not sufficient evidence to say that acupuncture worked. However, some experts believe it's worth trying. "Acupuncture can work," says Gilbert. "It probably works best to treat the psychological component of ED. There is very little downside to trying it."
When it comes to boosting sexual performance, many men will walk all over God’s green earth looking for ways to maintain a good sex life. Luckily men, all you have to do is walk — not run — 2 miles a day. This, along with other healthier lifestyle interventions can help obese men reduce their risk of ED, or even “reverse” current impotence, according to a 2005 study. This comes of importance, since maintaining a trim waistline is a good defense for ED, as men with a 42-inch waist are 50 percent more likely to have ED than those with a 32-inch waist. Getting to a healthy weight and maintaining it is a good strategy for preventing and treating ED.
Your doctor may also choose to lower your dose of certain medications. Or your provider may switch the type of drug you’re taking if it’s interfering with your sex life. Some medicines used for managing blood pressure, insomnia, anxiety, depression, seizures and prostate problems increase the risk for erectile dysfunction. Beta-blockers (for high blood pressure), SSRIs (often used to treat depression) and the class of drugs called benzodiazepines (like Ativan, Xanax, Librium and Valium) are commonly tied to ED. You may want to speak to your doctor about this.
In total, 24 RCTs, including 2080 patients with ED, were identified. Among these, 12 evaluated monopreparations (five ginseng [n = 399], three saffron [n = 397], two Tribulus terrestris [n = 202], and one each Pinus pinaster [n = 21] and Lepidium meyenii [n = 50]), seven evaluated formulations (n = 544), and five investigated dietary supplements in combination with pure compounds (n = 410). Ginseng significantly improved erectile function (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]-5 score: 140 ginseng, 96 placebo; standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.70; P < 0.01; I2 = 0), P. pinaster and L. meyenii showed very preliminary positive results, and saffron and T. terrestris treatment produced mixed results. Several herbal formulations were associated with a decrease of IIEF-5 or IIEF-15, although the results were preliminary. The quality of the included studies varied, with only seven having a prevalent low risk of bias. The median methodological quality Jadad score was three out of a maximum of five. Adverse events were recorded in 19 of 24 trials, with no significant differences between placebo and verum in placebo-controlled studies.
Doctors will often recommend certain medications for ED including Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra. These medications can treat ED for many men. But these medications may be unsafe for some men to take, or they don’t help relieve symptoms. In such cases, testosterone replacement therapy is another helpful option. This is prescribed when ED is caused by reduced levels of testosterone.
Opioids are used for chronic pain or for recreational use, and there is currently   an epidemic of opioid addiction in the United States. Opioids induce ED by inhibiting gonado-tropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which leads to a decrease in the production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Decreased levels of LH, in turn, inhibit production of testosterone, which – in both men and women – can cause depression and sexual dysfunction.9
Another age-old therapy for ED is acupuncture. This is an ancient Chinese treatment where thin needles are inserted into specific points of the body to relieve all kinds of illnesses. Acupuncture has been used to treat ED for years. Studies show that acupuncture improves erection as well as in the treatment of erectile dysfunction with psychological cause.18

The fowl most associated with belt-loosening feasts is lean, high in protein and the single best food source of arginine, the amino acid. Researchers at the NYU School of Medicine gave L-arginine to a group of impotent men, and found that six out of 15 men receiving the amino acid claimed an improved ability to achieve erections, while none of the 15 men in the placebo group reported any benefit. Additionally, the bird is rich in DHA omega-3 acids, which have been shown to boost brain function, improve your mood and turn off fat genes, actually preventing fat cells from growing! Just make sure you buy white meat only, as dark contains too much fat. And steer clear of prepackaged, sliced lunchmeat—those turkeys are strictly jive.

Despite the name, horny goat weed actually helps improve your erection, not libido.  Botanically known as epimedium, this herb has been used by the Chinese for centuries to treat, among other things, low libido and erectile dysfunction. “A growing body of research shows that isolated icariin—the extract of epimedium—inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) and significantly increases nitric oxide synthase, helping to improve erectile function,” says Fisch. In fact, this is the same mechanism that Viagra works through (but the herb comes with a way better name).
Most importantly, herbal supplements are not well regulated in the United States.  Studies have shown that 40-50% of herbal supplements do not even contain the supposed main ingredient, and many contain substances that are not listed which may have dangerous side effects2.  Another study found that over two thirds of the products tested had substituted other plant species for the plants listed on the label, and a third of products also contained other fillers or contaminants3.  A study by the New York State Attorney General of herbal products sold at GNC, Target, Walgreens, and Walmart found that four out of every five products didn’t contain the ingredient they claimed!  Fourteen US states and territories have petitioned Congress to regulate the herbal supplements industry.
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These underrated kernels are rich in zinc, and people with higher levels in their system have been shown to have a stronger drive than those with lower levels. They’re also a good source of magnesium, which boosts testosterone and keeps sperm healthy and viable. Pine nuts are the primary ingredient in pesto, so go Italian on your next date night, or sprinkle them on a salad with avocado, tomatoes and salmon.
For many men, stopping smoking is an erectile dysfunction remedy, particularly when ED is the result of vascular disease, which occurs when blood supply to the penis becomes restricted because of blockage or narrowing of the arteries. Smoking and even smokeless tobacco can also cause the narrowing of important blood vessels and have the same negative impact. 
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